THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948
  
 ACT NO. 63 OF 1948 1*
  
 [23rd September, 1948.]
  
 
      An Act  to consolidate  and amend  the law  regulating labour  in
 factories.
 
      WHEREAS  it  is  expedient  to  consolidate  and  amend  the  law
 regulating labour in factories;
 
      It is hereby enacted as follows:-
 
  
 CHAP
  
 PRELIMINARY
  
 
                               CHAPTER I
 
                              PRELIMINARY
 
  
 1.
  
 Short title, extent and commencement.
  
 
      1. Short  title, extent  and commencement.  (1) This  Act may  be
 called the Factories Act, 1948.
 
      2*[(2) It extends to the whole of India 3***.]
 
      (3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1949.
 
  
 2.
  
 Interpretation.
  
 
      2.  Interpretation.   In  this  Act,  unless  there  is  anything
 repugnant in the subject or context,-
 
           (a)  "adult" means  a person who has completed his fifteenth
                year of age;
 
           (b)  "adolescent" means  a  person  who  has  completed  his
                fifteen  year   of  age   but  has  not  completed  his
                eighteenth year;
 
           4*[(bb) "calendar  year" means  the period  of twelve months
                beginning with the first day of January in any year;]
 
           (c)  "child" means  a  person  who  has  not  completed  his
                fifteenth year of age;
 
           5*[(ca)] "competent person", in relation to any provision of
                this Act,  means a  person or an institution recognised
                as such  by the  Chief Inspector  for the  purposes  of
                carrying  out   tests,  examinations   and  inspections
                required to  be done  in a factory under the provisions
                of this Act having regard to-
 
                          (i) the  qualifications and experience of the
                     person and  facilities available  at his disposal;
                     or
 
                          (ii) the qualifications and experience of the
                     persons   employed   in   such   institution   and
                     facilities available therein,
 
           With regard  to the  conduct of such tests, examinations and
           inspections, and  more than one person or institution can be
           recognised as a competent person in relation to a factory;
 
           (cb) "hazardous process"  means any  process or  activity in
                relation to an industry specified in the First Schedule
                where, unless special care is taken, raw materials used
                therein or  the intermediate or finished products, bye-
                products, wastes or effluents thereof would--
 
                          (i) cause  material impairment  to the health
                     of the  persons engaged in or connected therewith,
                     or
 
                          (ii) result  in the  pollution of the general
                     environment:
 
                Provided that the State Government may, by notification
           in the  Official Gazette, amend the First Schedule by way of
           addition, omission or variation of any industry specified in
           the said Schedule;]
 
           (d)  "young person"  means a person who is either a child or
                an adolescent;
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   The Act has been extended to-
 
           Dadra and Nagar Haveli by Reg. 6 of 1963, s. 2 and Sch. I.
           Pondicherry by Reg. 7 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch. I.
           Goa, Daman and Diu by Reg, 11 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch.
           Laccadive, Minicoy  and Amindivi  Islands by Reg. 8 of 1965,
           s. 3 and Sch. I.
 2.   Subs. by the A. O. 1950 for the former sub-section.
 3.   The words  "except the State of Jammu and Kashmir" omitted by Act
      51 of 1970, s. 2 and Sch. (w.e.f. 1-9-1971).
 4.   Ins. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 2.
 5.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 34
 
           (e)  "day" means  a period of twenty-four hours beginning at
                midnight;
 
           (f)  "week" means  a  period  of  seven  days  beginning  at
                midnight on  Saturday night  or such other night as may
                be approved  in writing  for a  particular area  by the
                Chief Inspector of Factories;
 
           (g)  "power" means  electrical energy,  or any other form of
                energy which  is mechanically  transmitted and  is  not
                generated by human or animal agency;
 
           (h)  "prime  mover"   means  any   engine,  motor  or  other
                appliance which generates or otherwise provides power;
 
           (i)  "transmission machinery"  means any shaft, wheel, drum,
                pulley, system  of pulleys,  coupling, clutch,  driving
                belt or  other appliance  or device by which the motion
                of a  prime mover  is transmitted to or received by any
                machinery or appliance;
 
           (j)  "machinery"   includes   prime   movers,   transmission
                machinery and  all other  appliances whereby  power  is
                generated, transformed, transmitted or applied;
 
           (k)  "manufacturing process" means any process for-
 
                          (i) making, altering, repairing, ornamenting,
                     finishing,  packing,  oiling,  washing,  cleaning,
                     breaking up, demolishing, or otherwise treating or
                     adapting any  article or  substance with a view to
                     its use sale, transport, delivery or disposal, or
 
                          1*[(ii) pumping  oil, water,  sewage  or  any
                     other substance; or]
 
                          (iii)     generating,     transforming     or
                     transmitting power; or
 
                          2*[(iv)   composing   types   for   printing,
                     printing    by    letter    press,    lithography,
                     photogravure or  other  similar  process  or  book
                     binding;] 3*[or]
 
                          (v) constructing,  reconstructing, repairing,
                     refitting,  finishing  or  breaking  up  ships  or
                     vessels; 3*[or]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 2, for sub-clause (ii) of clause (k)
      (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 2, for former sub-clause.
 3.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 2 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 35
 
                          1*[(vi) preserving  or storing any article in
                     cold storage;]
 
           (l)  "worker" means  a person 2*[employed, directly or by or
                through any  agency (including  a contractor)  with  or
                without  the   knowledge  of  the  principal  employer,
                whether for  remuneration or not], in any manufacturing
                process, or  in cleaning  any part  of the machinery or
                premises used  for a  manufacturing process,  or in any
                other kind  of work  incidental to,  or connected with,
                the  manufacturing  process,  or  the  subject  of  the
                manufacturing  process  1*[but  does  not  include  any
                member of the armed forces of the Union];
 
           (m)  "factory" means  any premises  including the  precincts
                thereof-
 
                          (i) whereon  ten or more workers are working,
                     or were working on any day of the preceding twelve
                     months, and  in any  part of which a manufacturing
                     process is being carried on with the aid of power,
                     or is ordinarily so carried on, or
 
                          (ii)  whereon  twenty  or  more  workers  are
                     working,  or  were  working  on  any  day  of  the
                     preceding twelve  months, and in any part of which
                     a  manufacturing   process  is  being  carried  on
                     without the  aid of  power, or  is  ordinarily  so
                     carried on,-
 
                but does not include a mine subject to the operation of
                3*[the Mines  Act, 1952  (35 of  1952),] or 4*[a mobile
                unit belonging  to the  armed forces  of the  Union,  a
                railway running  shed or  a hotel, restaurant or eating
                place].
 
                5*[Explanation.  6*[I]--For  computing  the  number  of
                workers for the purposes of this clause all the workers
                in 6*[different  groups and  relays] in  a day shall be
                taken into account;]
 
                6*[Explanation. II.--For  the purposes  of this clause,
                the mere  fact that  an Electronic Data Processing Unit
                or a Computer Unit is installed in any premises or part
                thereof, shall  not be construed to make it a factory f
                no manufacturing  process is  being carried  on in such
                premises or part thereof;]
 
           (n)  "occupier" of  a  factory  means  the  person  who  has
                ultimate control over the affairs of the factory 6***.
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 2 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 2, for "the Indian Mines Act, 1923 (4
      of 1923)".
 4.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 2, for the words "a railway running
      shed: (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 5.   Ins. by s, 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 6.   Numbered, subs, ins. and omitted by Act, 20 of 1987, s. 2 (w.e.f.
      1-12-1987).
 
 36
 
                1*[Provided that-
 
                     (i) in  the case of a firm or other association of
                individuals, any  one of  the  individual  partners  or
                members thereof shall be deemed to be the occupier;
 
                     (ii) in  the case  of a  company, any  one of  the
                directors shall be deemed to be the occupier;
 
                     (iii) in the case of a factory owned or controlled
                by the  Central Government  or any State Government, or
                any local authority, the person or persons appointed to
                manage the  affairs  of  the  factory  by  the  Central
                Government,  the   State  Government   or   the   local
                authority, as  the case  may be,  shall be deemed to be
                the occupier:];
 
                1*[Provided further that in the case of a ship which is
                being repaired,  or on  which maintenance work is being
                carried out,  in a  dry dock  which  is  available  for
                hire,-
 
                     (1) the  owner of  the dock  shall be deemed to be
                the occupier  for the  purposes of  any matter provided
                for by or under-
 
                          (a) section  6,  section  7,  1*[section  7A,
                     section 7B] section 11 or section 12;
 
                          (b) section  17, in  so far  as it relates to
                     the providing  and maintenance  of sufficient  and
                     suitable lighting in or around the dock;
 
                          (c)  section  18,  section  19,  section  42,
                     section 46,  section 47 or section 49, in relation
                     to  the   workers  employed   on  such  repair  or
                     maintenance;
 
                     (2) the  owner of  the ship or his agent or master
                or other  officer-in-charge of  the ship  or any person
                who contracts with such owner, agent or master or other
                officer-in-charge  to   carry   out   the   repair   or
                maintenance work shall be deemed to be the occupier for
                the purposes  of any  matter provided  for by  or under
                section 13,  section 14, section 16 or section 17 (save
                as otherwise  provided in  this proviso)  or Chapter IV
                (except section  27)  or  section  43,  section  44  or
                section 45,  Chapter VI,  Chapter VII,  Chapter VIII or
                Chapter IX  or section 108, section 109 or section 110,
                in relation to-
 
                          (a) the  workers employed directly by him, or
                     by or through any agency; and
 
                          (b) the  machinery, plant  or premises in use
                     for the  purpose of  carrying out  such repair  or
                     maintenance work  by such  owner, agent, master or
                     other officer-in-charge or person;]
      1*             *                 *               *              *
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1    Ins. subs, and omitted by Act 20 of 1987, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-12-87).
 
 37
 
           (p)  "prescribed" means  prescribed by  rules  made  by  the
                State Government under this Act;
 
      1*            *                 *                *              *
 
           (r)  where work  of the  same kind  is carried out by two or
                more sets  of workers  working during different periods
                of the  day, each of such sets is called a 2*["group" or
                "relay"] and each of such periods is called  a "shift".
 
  
 3.
  
 References to time of day.
  
 
      3. References  to time  of day. In this Act references to time of
 day are  references to  Indian Standard  Time, being  five and  a half
 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time:
 
      Provided that  for any  area in which Indian Standard Time is not
 ordinarily observed the State Government may make rules-
 
           (a)  specifying the area,
 
           (b)  defining  the   local  mean  time  ordinarily  observed
                therein, and
 
           (c)  permitting such  time to  be observed  in all or any of
                the factories situated in the area.
 
  
 4.
  
 Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or twoor more
 factories to be a single factory.
  
 
      3*[4. Power  to declare  different  departments  to  be  separate
 factories or  two or  more factories to be a single factory. The State
 Government may,  4*[on its  own or]   on  an application  made in this
 behalf by an occupier, direct, by an order in writing; 4*[and  subject
 to such  conditions as  it may  deem fit]  that for  all or any of the
 purposes of this Act different departments or branches of a factory of
 the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as separate
 factories or  that two  or more factories of the occupier specified in
 the application shall be treated as a single factory:]
 
      4*[Provided that no order under this section shall be made by the
 State Government  on its  own motion  unless on  opportunity of  being
 heard is given to the occupier.]
 
  
 5.
  
 Power to exempt during public emergency.
  
 
      5. Power to exempt during public emergency. In any case of public
 emergency the  State Government  may, by  notification in the Official
 Gazette, exempt  any factory or class or description of factories from
 all or  any of  the provisions of this Act, 5*[except  section 67] for
 such period and subject to such conditions as it may think fit:
 
      Provided that  no such  notification shall  be made  for a period
 exceeding three months at a time.
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Clause (q) rep. by the A. O. 1950.
 2.   Subs, by Act 20 of 1987, s.  2 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 3.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 3.
 4.   Ins.  in added by Act 20 of 1987 s. 3 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 5.   Ins. by the A. O. 1950.
 
 38
 
      1*[Explanation.--For  the   purposes  of   this  section  "public
 emergency" means a grave emergency whereby the security of India or of
 any part  of the  territory thereof  is threatened,  whether by war or
 external aggression of internal disturbance.]
 
  
 6.
  
 Approval, licensing and registration of factories.
  
 
      6. Approval,  licensing and  registration of  factories. (1)  The
 State Government may make rules-
 
           2*[(a)  requiring,   for  the  purposes  of  this  Act,  the
                submission of  plans of  any class  or  description  of
                factories  to   the  Chief   Inspector  or   the  State
                Government;]
 
           3*[(aa)] requiring the previous permission in writing of the
                State Government  or the Chief Inspector to be obtained
                for the site on which the factory is to be situated and
                for the  construction or  extension of  any factory  or
                class or description of factories;
 
           (b)  requiring for  the purpose  of considering  application
                for  such   permission  the  submission  of  plans  and
                specifications;
 
           (c)  prescribing the nature of such plans and specifications
                and by whom they shall be certified;
 
           (d)  requiring the  registration and  licensing of factories
                or  any   class  or   description  of   factories,  and
                prescribing the  fees payable for such registration and
                licensing and for the renewal of licences;
 
           (e)  requiring that  no licence  shall be granted or renewed
                unless the  notice specified  in  section  7  has  been
                given.
 
      (2) If  on an application for permission referred to in 4*[clause
 (aa)] of  sub-section (1)  accompanied by the plans and specifications
 required by  the rules made under clause (b) of that sub-section, sent
 to the  State Government  or Chief  Inspector by  registered post,  no
 order is  communicated to  the applicant  within three months from the
 date on  which it  is so  sent, the permission applied for in the said
 application shall be deemed to have been granted.
 
      (3) Where  a State  Government or  a Chief  Inspector refuses  to
 grant permission to the site, construction or extension of a factory
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 3 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Clause (a)  re-lettered as clause (aa) by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-
      10-1976).
 4.   Subs. by s. 4, ibid., "clause (a)" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 39
 
 or to  the registration  and licensing of a factory, the applicant may
 within thirty  days of  the date of such refusal appeal to the Central
 Government if  the decision  appealed from was of the State Government
 and to the State Government in any other case.
 
      Explanation.--A factory shall not be deemed to be extended within
 the meaning  of this  section by reason only of the replacement of any
 plant or machinery, or within such limits as may be prescribed, of the
 addition of  any plant or machinery 1*[if such replacement or addition
 does not  reduce the  minimum clear  space required  for safe  working
 around the  plant or  machinery or  adversely affect the environmental
 conditions from  the evolution  or emission  of steam, heat or dust or
 fumes injurious to health].
 
  
 7.
  
 Notice by occupier.
  
 
      7. Notice  by occupier.  (1) The occupier shall, at least fifteen
 days before he begins to occupy or use any premises as a factory, sent
 to the Chief Inspector a written notice containing-
 
           (a)  the name and situation of the factory;
 
           (b)  the name and address of the occupier;
 
           2*[(bb) the name and address of the owner of the premises or
                building (including  the precincts thereof) referred to
                in section 93;]
 
           (c)  the address  to which  communications relating  to  the
                factory may be sent;
 
           (d)  the nature of the manufacturing process-
 
                          (i) carried on in the factory during the last
                     twelve  months   in  the   case  of  factories  in
                     existence on  the date of the commencement of this
                     Act, and
 
                          (ii) to  be carried  on in the factory during
                     the  next   twelve  months  in  the  case  of  all
                     factories;
 
           3*[(e) the  total rated  horse  power  installed  or  to  be
                installed in  the factory,  which shall not include the
                rated horse power of any separate stand-by plant;]
 
           (f)  the name  of the  manage of the factory of the purposes
                of this Act;
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 4 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 4
 3.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 5,  for clause  (e) (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 
 40
 
           (g)  the number  of workers  likely to  be employed  in  the
                factory;
 
           (h)  the average  number of  workers per day employed during
                the last  twelve months  in  the  case  of  factory  in
                existence on the date of the commencement of this Act.
 
           (i)  such other particulars as may be prescribed.
 
      (2) In  respect of all establishments which come within the scope
 of the  Act for  the first  time, the  occupier shall  send a  written
 notice to  the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in
 subsection (1)  within thirty  days, from the date of the commencement
 of this Act.
 
      (3) Before  a factory engaged in a manufacturing process which is
 ordinarily carried  on for  less than  one hundred  and eighty working
 days in  the year  resumes working,  the occupier shall send a written
 notice to  the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in
 sub-section (1)  1*[at least  thirty days]  before  the  date  of  the
 commencement of work.
 
      (4) Whenever  a new manager is appointed, the occupier shall send
 to the 2*[Inspector a written notice and to the Chief Inspector a Copy
 thereof] within  seven days  from the  date on which such person takes
 over charges.
 
      (5) During  any period for which no person has been designated as
 manager of  a factory  or during  which the person designated does not
 manage the  factory, any  person found acting as manage, or if no such
 person is  found, the  occupier himself,  shall be  deemed to  be  the
 manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act.
 
  
 CHAP
  
 THE INSPECTING STAFF
  
 
                               CHAPTER II
 
                          THE INSPECTING STAFF
 
  
 7A.
  
 General duties of the occupier.
  
 
      3*[7A. General  duties of  the occupier. (1) Every occupier shall
 ensure, so  far as  is reasonably  practicable, the health, safety and
 welfare of all workers while they are at work in the factory.
 
      (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-
 section (1), the matters to which such duty extends, shall include-
 
           (a)  the provision  and maintenance  of plant and systems of
                work in  the factory that are safe and without risks to
                health;
 
           (b)  the arrangements in the factory for ensuring safety and
                absence of  risks to health in connection with the use,
                handling,  storage   and  transport   of  articles  and
                substances;
 
           (c)  the  provision   of  such   information,   instruction,
                training and supervision as are necessary to ensure the
                health and safety of all workers at work;
 
           (d)  the maintenance of all places of work in the factory in
                a condition  that is  safe without  risks to health and
                the provision  and maintenance  of such means of access
                to, and  egress from,  such  places  as  are  safe  and
                without such risks;
 
           (e)  the  provision,   maintenance  or  monitoring  of  such
                working environment in the factory for the workers that
                is safe,  without  risks  to  health  and  adequate  as
                regards facilities  and arrangements  for their welfare
                at work.
 
      (3) Except  in such  cases as  may be  prescribed, every occupier
 shall prepare,  and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written
 statement of  his general policy with respect to the health and safety
 of the  workers at  work and the organisation and arrangements for the
 time being  in force  for carrying  out that  policy, and to bring the
 statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the workers in
 such manner as may be prescribed.]
 
  
 7B.
  
 General  duties   of  manufactures,  etc.,  as  regards  articles
 andsubstances for use in factories.
  
 
      4*[7B. General  duties of manufactures, etc., as regards articles
 and substances  for use  in factories.  (1) Every  person who designs,
 manufactures, imports  or supplies  any article for use in any factory
 shall--
 
           (a)  ensure, so  far as  is reasonably practicable, that the
                article is  so designed  and constructed  as to be safe
                and without  risks to  the health  of the  workers when
                properly used;
 
           (b)  carry out or arrange for the carrying out of such tests
                and examination  as may be considered necessary for the
                effective implementation  of the  provisions of  clause
                (a);
 
           (c)  take such  steps as  may be  necessary to  ensure  that
                adequate information will be available-
 
                     (i) in  connection with  the use of the article in
                any factory;
 
                     (ii) about  the use  for which  it is designed and
                tested; and
 
                     (iii) about  any conditions  necessary  to  ensure
                that the  article, when  put to such use, will be safe,
                and without risks to the health of the workers:
 
                Provided  that   where  an   article  is   designed  or
           manufactured outside  India, is  shall be  obligatory on the
           part of the importer to see-
 
           (a)  that the article conforms to the same standards if such
                article is manufactured in India, or
 
           (b)  if the standards adopted in the country outside for the
                manufacture of  such article  is  above  the  standards
                adopted in  India, that  the article  conforms to  such
                standards.
 
      (2) Every  person, who  undertakes to  design or  manufacture any
 article for  use in  any factory,  may carry  out or  arrange for  the
 carrying out  of necessary  research with a view of the discovery and,
 so far  as is  reasonably practicable, the elimination or minimisation
 of any  risks to  the health  or safety  of the  workers to  which the
 design or article may give rise.
 
      (3) Nothing  contained  in  sub-section  (1)  and  (2)  shall  be
 construed to  require a  person to  repeat the testing, examination or
 research which  has been  carried out  otherwise than by him or at his
 instance in  so far as it is reasonable for him to rely on the results
 thereof for the purposes of the said sub-sections.
 
      (4) Any  duty imposed  on any  person by  sub-section (1) and (20
 shall extend  only to things done in the course of business carried on
 by him and to matters within his control.
 
      (5) Where  a person designs, manufactures, imports or supplies an
 article on  the basis  of a  written undertaking  by the  user of such
 article to  take the steps specified in such undertaking to ensure, so
 far as  is reasonably  practicable, that  the article will be safe and
 without risks  to the  health of  the workers  when properly used, the
 undertaking shall  have the  effect of relieving the person designing,
 manufacturing, importing  or  supplying  the  article  from  the  duty
 imposed by  clause (a)  of  sub-section  (1)  to  such  extent  as  is
 reasonable having regard to the term of the undertaking.
 
      (6) For  the purposes  of this  section, and article is not to be
 regarded as  properly used  if  it  is  used  without  regard  to  any
 information or  advice  relating  to  its  use  which  has  been  made
 available by  the person  who has  designed, manufactured, imported or
 supplied the article.
 
      Explanation.--For the  purposes of  this section, "article" shall
 include plant and machinery.
 
  
 8.
  
 Inspectors.
  
 
      8. Inspectors.  (1) The  State Government may, by notification in
 the Official  Gazette, appoint  such persons as possess the prescribed
 qualification to  be Inspectors  for the  purposes of this Act and may
 assign to them such local limits as it may think fit.
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 40  of 1949,  s. 3  and Sch.  II for "within thirty
      days".
 2.   Subs. by  Act 25  of 1954,  s. 4,  for "Chief Inspector a written
      notice".
 3.   Ins. by Art 20 of 1987, s. 4 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 4.   Ins. by s. 4 ibid, (w.e.f. 1-06-1988).
 
 41
 
      (2) The  State Government  may, by  notification in  the Official
 Gazette, appoint  any person  to be  a Chief  Inspector who  shall, in
 addition to  the powers conferred on a Chief Inspector under this Act,
 exercise the powers of an Inspector throughout the State.
 
      1*[(2A) The State Government may, by notification in the Official
 Gazette,  appoint  as  many  Addition  Chief  Inspector,  Joint  Chief
 Inspector and  Deputy Chief Inspector and as many other officers as it
 thinks fit  to assist  the Chief Inspector and to exercise such of the
 powers  of   the  Chief   Inspector  as   may  be  specified  in  such
 notification.
 
      (2B) Every  additional Chief  Inspector, Joint  Chief  Inspector,
 Deputy  Chief  Inspector  and  every  other  officer  appointed  under
 subsection (2A)  shall, in addition to the powers of a Chief Inspector
 specified in  the notification  by which he is appointed, exercise the
 powers of an Inspector throughout the State.]
 
      (3) No  person shall  be appointed  under sub-section  (1),  sub-
 section (2) 1*[sub-section (2A)] or sub-section (5) or, having been so
 appointed, shall  continue to hold officer, who is or becomes directly
 or indirectly  interested in  a factory  or in any process or business
 carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith.
 
      (4) Every  District Magistrate  shall be  an  Inspector  for  his
 district.
 
      (5) The  State Government may also, by notification as aforesaid,
 appoint such  public officers  as  it  thinks  fit  to  be  additional
 Inspectors for  all or  any of  the purposes  of this Act, within such
 local limits as it may assign to them respectively.
 
      (6) In  any area  where there  are more  Inspectors than  one the
 State Government may, by notification as aforesaid, declare the powers
 which such   Inspectors  shall respectively exercise and the Inspector
 to whom the prescribed notices are to be sent.
 
      (7) 2*[Every  Chief Inspector,  Additional Chief Inspector, Joint
 Chief Inspector,  Deputy Chief  Inspector, Inspector  and every  other
 officer appointed under this section ] shall be deemed to be a public
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 6 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 6, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 42
 
 servant within  the meaning of the Indian Penal Code, (45 of 1860) and
 shall be  officially  subordinate  to  such  authority  as  the  State
 Government may specify in this behalf.
 
  
 9.
  
 Powers of Inspectors.
  
 
      9. Powers  of Inspectors.  Subject to  any  rules  made  in  this
 behalf, an  Inspector may,  within the  local limits  for which  he is
 appointed,--
 
           (a)  enter, with  such  assistants,  being  persons  in  the
                service of the Government, or any local or other public
                authority, 1*[or  with an expert] as he thinks fit, any
                place which  is used, or which he has reason to believe
                is used, as a factory;
 
           1*[(b) make  examination of the premises, plant, machinery,
                article or substance;
 
           (c)  inquire into  any  accident  or  dangerous  occurrence,
                whether resulting  in bodily injury, disability or not,
                and take  on the  spot or  otherwise statements  of any
                person  which   he  may  consider  necessary  for  such
                inquiry;
 
           (d)  require the  production of  any prescribed  register or
                any other document relating to the factory;
 
           (e)  seize, or take copies of, any register, record or other
                document or  any portion  thereof, as  he may  consider
                necessary in  respect of  any offence  under this  Act,
                which he has reason to believe, has been committed;
 
           (f)  direct the  occupier that  any  premises  or  any  part
                thereof, or  anything  lying  therein,  shall  be  left
                disturbed (whether generally or in particular respects)
                for so  long as  is necessary  for the  purpose of  any
                examination under clause(b);
 
           (g)  take  measurements   and  photographs   and  make  such
                recordings as he considers necessary for the purpose of
                any examination  under clause  (b), taking with him any
                necessary instrument or equipment;
 
           (h)  in case  of any  article  or  substance  found  in  any
                premises, being  an article  or substance which appears
                to him as having caused or is likely to cause danger to
                the health  or safety  of the workers, direct it to the
                dismantled or  subject it  to any  process or test (but
                not so  as to  damage or destroy it unless the same is,
                in the  circumstances necessary,  for carrying  out the
                purposes of  this Act), and take possession of any such
                article or  substance or  a part thereof, and detain it
                for so long as is necessary for such examination;
 
           (i)  exercise such other powers as may be prescribed.]
 
      Provided that  no person shall be compelled under this section to
 answer any  question or  give  any  evidence  tending  to  incriminate
 himself.
 
  
 10.
  
 Certifying surgeons.
  
 
      10. Certifying  surgeons. (1)  The State  Government may  appoint
 qualified medical  practitioners to  be certifying  surgeons  for  the
 purposes of  this Act  within such local limits or for such factory or
 class  or   description  of   factories  as  it  may  assign  to  them
 respectively.
 
      (2) A  certifying surgeon  may, with  the approval  of the  State
 Government, authorize  any qualified  medical practitioner to exercise
 any of  his powers  under this  Act for  such period as the certifying
 surgeon may  specify and  subject to  such  conditions  as  the  State
 Government may  think fit  to impose,  and references in this Act to a
 certifying surgeon  shall be  deemed  to  include  references  to  any
 qualified medical practitioner when so authorized.
 
      (3) No person shall be appointed to be, or authorized to exercise
 the powers  of, a  certifying surgeon,  or having been so appointed or
 authorized, continue  to exercise  such powers,  who is or becomes the
 occupier of  a  factory  or  is  or  becomes  directly  or  indirectly
 interested therein or in any process or business carried on therein or
 in
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. and subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 5 (w.e.f. 1-12-87).
 
 42A
 
 any patent  or machinery  connected therewith  or is  otherwise in the
 employ of the factory:
 
      1*[Provided that  the State  Government may,  by order in writing
 and subject  to such  conditions as  may be  specified in  the  order,
 exempt any person or class of persons from the provisions of this sub-
 section  in  respect  of  any  factory  or  class  or  description  of
 factories.]
 
      (4) The  certifying surgeon shall carry out such duties as may be
 prescribed in connection with-
 
           (a)  the examination and certification of young person under
                this Act;
 
           (b)  the examination of persons engaged in factories in such
                dangerous  occupations   or   processes   as   may   be
                prescribed;
 
           (c)  the exercising  of such  medical supervision  as may be
                prescribed for  any factory  or class or description of
                factories where--
 
                          (i) cases  of illness  have occurred which it
                     is reasonable  to believe are due to the nature of
                     the manufacturing  process carried  on,  or  other
                     conditions of work prevailing, therein;
 
                          (ii)  by   reason  of   any  change   in  the
                     manufacturing  process   carried  on   or  in  the
                     substances  used  therein  or  by  reason  of  the
                     adoption of  any new  manufacturing process  or of
                     any new  substance  for  use  in  a  manufacturing
                     process, there  is a  likelihood of  injury to the
                     health of  workers employed  in that manufacturing
                     process;
 
                          (iii) young  persons are, or are about to be,
                     employed in  any work  which is  likely  to  cause
                     injury to their health.
 
      Explanation.--In this  section "qualified  medical  practitioner"
 means a  person  holding  a  qualification  granted  by  an  authority
 specified in  the Schedule to the Indian Medical Degrees Act, 1916  (7
 of 1916), or in  the Schedules to the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933
 (27 of 1933).
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 7 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 42B
 
  
 CHAP
  
 HEALTH
  
 
                              CHAPTER III
 
                                 HEALTH
 
  
 11.
  
 Cleanliness.
  
 
      11. Cleanliness.  (1) Every  factory shall be kept clean and free
 from effluvia  arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in
 particular-
 
           (a)  accumulation of  dirt and refuse shall be removed daily
                by sweeping  or by  any other effective method from the
                floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and
                passages, and disposed of in a suitable manner;
 
           (b)  the floor  of every  workroom shall be cleaned at least
                once in  every week  by  washing,  using  disinfectant,
                where necessary, or by some other effective method;
 
           (c)  where a  floor is liable to become wet in the course of
                any manufacturing  process to such extent as is capable
                of being  drained, effective means of drainage shall be
                provided and maintained;
 
           (d)  all inside  walls and  partitions, all ceilings or tops
                of rooms  and all walls, sides and tops of passages and
                staircases shall-
 
                          (i) where  they are 1*[painted otherwise than
                     with  washable   water-paint]  or   varnished,  be
                     repainted or  revarnished at  least once  in every
                     period of five years;
 
                          2*[(ia) where  they are painted with washable
                     water paint,  be repainted  with at least one coat
                     of such  paint at  least once  in every  period of
                     three years  and washed  at least  once  in  every
                     period of six months;]
 
                          (ii) where  they are  painted or varnished or
                     where they  have smooth  impervious  surfaces,  be
                     cleaned at  least once in every period of fourteen
                     months by such method as may be prescribed;
 
                          (iii)  in any other case, be kept whitewashed
                     or   colourwashed,   and   the   whitewashing   or
                     colourwashing shall  be carried  out at least once
                     in every period of fourteen months;
 
           2*[(dd) all  doors and  window frames  and other  wooden  or
                metallic framework  and shutters  shall be kept painted
                or varnished  and the  painting or  varnishing shall be
                carried out  at least  once in  every  period  of  five
                years;]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 8, for the word "painted" (w.e.f. 26-
      10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 8, ibid., (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 42C
 
           (e)  the dates on which the processes required by clause (d)
                are carried  out shall  be entered  in  the  prescribed
                register.
 
      (2) If,  in view of the nature of the operations carried on 1*[in
 a factory  or class  or description  of factories  or any  part  of  a
 factory or  class or description of factories], it is not possible for
 the occupier  to comply  with all  or any  of the  provisions of  sub-
 section (1),  the State Government may be order exempt such factory or
 class or  description of  factories 2*  [or  part]  from  any  of  the
 provisions of  that sub-section  and specify  alternative methods  for
 keeping the factory in a clean state.
 
  
 12.
  
 Disposal of wastes and effluents.
  
 
      12.  Disposal   of  wastes   and  effluents.   3*[(1)   Effective
 arrangements shall  be made  in every  factory for  the  treatment  of
 wastes and  effluents due  to the  manufacturing  process  carried  on
 therein, so as to render them innocuous and for their disposal.]
 
      (2)  The   State  Government   may  make  rules  prescribing  the
 arrangements to  be made  under sub-section  (1) or requiring that the
 arrangements made in accordance with sub-section 91) shall be approved
 by such authority as may be prescribed.
 
  
 13.
  
 Ventilation and temperature.
  
 
      13. Ventilation  and  temperature.  (1)  Effective  and  suitable
 provision shall  be made in every factory for securing and maintaining
 in every workroom--
 
           (a)  adequate ventilation  by the  circulation of fresh air,
                and
 
           (b)  such a  temperature as  will secure  to workers therein
                reasonable conditions  of comfort and prevent injury to
                health;-
 
 and in particular,-
 
           (i)  walls and  roofs shall  be  of  such  material  and  so
                designed that  such temperature  shall not  be exceeded
                but kept as low as practicable;
 
           (ii) where the  nature of the work carried on in the factory
                involves, or  is likely  to involve,  the production of
                excessively high  temperatures, such  adequate measures
                as are  practicable  shall  be  taken  to  protect  the
                workers
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 8, for "in a factory" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 8, ibid., (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Subs. by s. 9, ibid., for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 42D
 
                therefrom, by  separating the  process  which  produces
                such temperatures  from the workroom, by insulating the
                hot parts or by other effective means.
 
      (2) The  State Government  may prescribe  a standard  of adequate
 ventilation and  reasonable temperature  for any  factory or  class or
 description of  factories or  parts thereof  and direct that 1*[proper
 measuring instruments,  at such  places and in such position as may be
 specified, shall  be provided  and such records, as may be prescribed,
 shall be maintained.]
 
      1*[(3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high
 temperatures in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable
 measures, he  may, without  prejudice to  the rules  made  under  sub-
 section (2), serve on the occupier, an order in writing specifying the
 measures which,  in his opinion, should be adopted, and requiring them
 to be carried out before a specified date.]
 
  
 14.
  
 Dust and fume.
  
 
      14. Dust  and fume.  (1) In  every factory in which, by reason of
 the manufacturing  process carried  on, there is given off any dust or
 fume or other
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 6, (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 43
 
 impurity of  such a  nature and  to such  an extent as is likely to be
 injurious or offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in
 substantial quantities,  effective measures  shall be taken to prevent
 its inhalation  and accumulation  in any  workroom, and if any exhaust
 appliance is  necessary for  this purpose, it shall be applied as near
 as possible  to the  point of  origin  of  the  dust,  fume  or  other
 impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.
 
      (2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall
 be operated  unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no
 other internal  combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless
 effective measures  have been  taken to  prevent such  accumulation of
 fumes therefrom  as are  likely to be injurious to workers employed in
 the room.
 
  
 15.
  
 Artificial humidification.
  
 
      15. Artificial humidification. (1) In respect of all factories in
 which the  humidity of  the air  is artificially  increased, the State
 Government may make rules,-
 
           (a)  prescribing standards of humidification;
 
           (b)  regulating the methods used for artificially increasing
                the humidity of the air;
 
           (c)  directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity
                of the air to be correctly carried out and recorded;
 
           (d)  prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate
                ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.
 
      (2)  In  any  factory  in  which  the  humidity  of  the  air  is
 artificially increased,  the water used for the purpose shall be taken
 from a  public supply,  or other source of drinking water, or shall be
 effectively purified before it is so used.
 
      (3) If  it appears  to an  Inspector that  the water  used  in  a
 factory for increasing humidity is required to be effectively purified
 under sub-section  (2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the
 manager of  the factory  an order  in writing, specifying the measures
 which in  his opinion  should be  adopted, and  requiring them  to  be
 carried out before specified date.
 
  
 16.
  
 Overcrowding.
  
 
      16. Overcrowding. (1) No room in any factory shall be overcrowded
 to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.
 
      (2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there
 shall be  in every workroom of factory in existence on the date of the
 commencement of this Act at least 1*[9.9 cubic metres]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 44
 
 and  of  a  factory  built  after  the  commencement   of  this Act at
 least 1*[14.2  cubic  meters]  of  space  for  every  worker  employed
 therein, and  for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be
 taken of  any space  which is more than 1*[4.2 meters] above the level
 of the floor of the room.
 
      (3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there
 shall be  posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the
 maximum number  of workers  who may, in compliance with the provisions
 of this section, be employed in the room.
 
      (4) The  chief Inspector  may by order in writing exempt, subject
 to such  conditions, if  any, as  he may  think  fit  to  impose,  any
 workroom from  the provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that
 compliance therewith  in respect  of the  rooms is  unnecessary in the
 interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
 
  
 17.
  
 Lighting.
  
 
      Lighting. (1)  In every  part of  a  factory  where  workers  are
 working or  passing there  shall be provided and maintained sufficient
 and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.
 
      (2) In  every factory  all glazed  windows and skylights used for
 the lighting of the workrooms shall be kept clean on both the inner an
 outer surfaces  and, so  far as  compliance with the provisions of any
 rules made  under sub-section  (3) of section 13 will allow, free from
 obstruction.
 
      (3) In  every factory  effective provision  shall, so  far as  is
 practicable, be made for the prevention of-
 
           (a)  glare, either  directly from  a source  of light  or by
                reflection from a smooth or polished surface;
 
           (b)  the formation  of shadows to such an extent as to cause
                eye-strain or the risk of accident to any worker.
 
      (4) The  State Government  may prescribe  standards of sufficient
 and suitable lighting for factories or for any class of description of
 factories or for any manufacturing process.
 
  
 18.
  
 Drinking water.
  
 
      18. Drinking  water. (1)  In every factory effective arrangements
 shall be  made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently
 situated for  all workers  employed therein  a  sufficient  supply  of
 wholesome drinking water.
 
      (2) All such points shall be legibly marked "drinking water" in a
 language understood by majority of the workers employed in the
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 45
 
 factory, and  no such  point shall be situated within 1*[six meters of
 any washing  place, urinal,  latrine, spittoon,  open  drain  carrying
 sullage or  effluent or  any other  source of contamination]  unless a
 shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.
 
      (3) In  every factory  wherein more  than two  hundred and  fifty
 workers are  ordinarily employed,  provision shall be made for cooling
 drinking  water   during  hot  weather  by  effective  means  and  for
 distribution thereof.
 
      (4) In  respect of  all factories  or any class or description of
 factories the  State Government may make rules for securing compliance
 with the  provisions of  sub-sections (1),  (2) and  (3) and  for  the
 examination by  prescribed authorities  of the supply and distribution
 of drinking water in factories.
 
  
 19.
  
 Latrines and urinals.
  
 
      19. Latrines and urinals. (1) In every factory--
 
           (a)  sufficient  latrine   and   urinal   accommodation   of
                prescribed  types   shall  be   provided   conveniently
                situated and  accessible to  workers at all times while
                they at the factory;
 
           (b)  separate enclosed  accommodation shall  be provided for
                male and female workers;
 
           (c)  such accommodation  shall  be  adequately  lighted  and
                ventilated, and  no latrine  or  urinal  shall,  unless
                specially exempted  in writing  by the Chief Inspector,
                communicate  with   any  workroom   except  through  an
                intervening open space or ventilated passage;
 
           (d)  all such  accommodation shall  be maintained in a clean
                and sanitary condition at all times;
 
           (e)  sweepers shall  be employed whose primary duty it would
                be to keep clean latrines, urinals and washing places.
 
      (2) In  every factory  wherein more  than two  hundred and  fifty
 workers are ordinarily employed-
 
           (a)  all  latrine  and  urinal  accommodation  shall  be  of
                prescribed sanitary types;
 
           (b)  the floors  and internal  walls, up  to a  height of 2*
                [ninety continents] of the latrines and urinals and the
                sanitary blocks  shall  be  laid  in  glazed  tiles  or
                otherwise  finished   to  provided  a  smooth  polished
                impervious surface;
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 8 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 2.   Subs. by s. 9 ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 46
 
           (c)  without prejudice  to the provisions of clauses (d) and
                (e) of  sub-section (1),  the floors,  portions of  the
                walls and  blocks so  laid or finished and the sanitary
                pans of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed
                and cleaned  at least  once in  every seven  days  with
                suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.
 
      (3) The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and
 urinals to  be provided in any factory in proportion to the numbers of
 male and  female workers  ordinarily employed therein, and provide for
 such further  matters in respect of sanitation in factories, including
 the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considers necessary in
 the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
 
  
 20.
  
 Spittoons.
  
 
      20. Spittoons.  (1) In  every factory  there shall  be provided a
 sufficient number  of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be
 maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.
 
      (2) The  State Government may make rules prescribing the type and
 the number  of spittoons  to be  provided and  their location  in  any
 factory and  provide  for  such  further  matters  relating  to  their
 maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.
 
      (3) No  person shall spit within the premises of a factory except
 in the  spittoons provided  for the  purposes and  a notice containing
 this provision  and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently
 displayed at suitable places in the premises.
 
      (4) Whoever  spits in  contravention of  sub-section (3) shall be
 punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees.
 
  
 CHAP
  
 SAFETY
  
 
                               CHAPTER IV
 
                                 SAFETY
 
  
 21.
  
 Fencing of machinery.
  
 
      21. Fencing  of machinery.  (1) In  every factory  the following,
 namely,--
 
           (i)  every moving  part of  a prime mover and every flywheel
                connected to  a prime  mover whether the prime mover or
                flywheel is in the engine house or not;
 
           (ii) the headrace  and tailrace  of  every  water-wheel  and
                water turbine;
 
           (iii)any part  of a stock-bar which projects beyond the head
                stock of a lathe; and
 
 47
 
           (iv) unless  they   are  in   such  position   or  of   such
                construction as  to be safe to every person employed in
                the factory  as they  would be  if they  were  securely
                fenced, the following, namely,--
 
                          (a) every  part of  an electric  generator, a
                     motor or rotary convertor;
 
                          (b) every part of transmission machinery; and
 
                          (c)  every   dangerous  part   of  any  other
                     machinery,
 
 shall be  securely fenced  by safeguards  of substantial  construction
 which 1*[shall  be constantly  maintained and  kept in position] while
 the parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion or in use:
 
      2*[Provided that  for the purpose of determining whether any part
 of machinery  is in  such position or is of such construction as to be
 safe as aforesaid, account shall not be taken of any occasion when-
 
           (i)  it is  necessary to  make an examination of any part of
                the machinery  aforesaid while it is in motion or, as a
                result of such examination, to carry out lubrication or
                other adjusting  operation while  the machinery  is  in
                motion, being  an examination  or operation which it is
                necessary to  be carried  out while  that part  of  the
                machinery is in motion, or
 
           (ii) in the  case of  any part  of a  transmission machinery
                used in  such process  as may  be prescribed  (being  a
                process of a continuous nature the carrying on of which
                shall be,  or is likely to be, substantially interfered
                with by the stoppage of that part of the machinery), it
                is necessary to make an examination of such part of the
                machinery while it is in motion or, as a result or such
                examination, to  carry out  any mounting or shipping of
                belts or lubrication or other adjusting operation while
                the machinery is in motion,
 
 and such examination or operation is made or carried out in accordance
 with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 22.]
 
      (2) The  State Government  may be  rules prescribe  such  further
 precautions as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 10 for certain words (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 10 ibid., for the proviso (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 48
 
 machinery or part thereof, or exempt, subject to such condition as may
 be prescribed,  for securing the safety of the workers, any particular
 machinery or part thereof from the provisions of this section.
 
  
 22.
  
 Work on or near machinery in motion.
  
 
      22. Work  on or  near machinery  in motion.  (1) 1*[Where  in any
 factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred
 to in section 21, while the machinery is in motion, or, as a result of
 such examination, to carry out-
 
           (a)  in a  case referred  to in clause (i) of the proviso to
                sub-section (1)  of section  21, lubrication  or  other
                adjusting operation; or
 
           (b)  in a  case referred  to in  clause (ii)  of the proviso
                aforesaid,  any   mounting  or  shipping  of  belts  or
                lubrication or other adjusting operation,
 
 while the  machinery is in motion, such examination or operation shall
 be made  or carried  out only by a specially trained adult male worker
 wearing tight  fitting  clothing  (which  shall  be  supplied  by  the
 occupier) whose  name has  been recorded in the register prescribed in
 this behalf  and who  has been  furnished with  a certificate  of  his
 appointment, and while he is so engaged,--
 
           (a)  such worker  shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley
                unless-
 
                          (i)  the   belt  is  not  more  than  fifteen
                     centimeters in width;
 
                          (ii) the  pulley is  normally for the purpose
                     of drive  and not  merely a  fly-wheel or  balance
                     wheel (in which case a belt is not permissible);
 
                          (iii) the belt joint is either laced or flush
                     with the belt;
 
                          (iv) the  belt, including  the joint  and the
                     pulley rim, are in good repair;
 
                          (v) there is reasonable clearance between the
                     pulley and any fixed plant or structure;
 
                          (vi) secure  foothold and,  where  necessary,
                     secure handhold,  are provided  for the  operator;
                     and
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 11,  for the opening paragraph and
      clause (a) (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 49
 
                          (vii)  any ladder in use for carrying out any
                     examination or  operation  aforesaid  is  securely
                     fixed or  lashed or  is firmly  held by  a  second
                     person;]
 
           (b)  without prejudice  to any  other provision  of this Act
                relating to  the fencing of machinery, every set screw,
                bolt and  key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or
                pinion,  and  all  spur,  worm  and  other  toothed  or
                friction gearing in motion with which such worker would
                otherwise be  liable to  come into  contact,  shall  be
                securely fenced to prevent such contact.
 
      1*[(2) No  woman or  young person  shall  be  allowed  to  clean,
 lubricate or  adjust any  part of a prime mover or of any transmission
 machinery while  the prime  mover  or  transmission  machinery  is  in
 motion, or  to clean,  lubricate or  adjust any part of any machine if
 the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof would expose the woman
 or young  person to risk of injury from any moving part either of that
 machine or of any adjacent machinery.]
 
      (3) The  State Government  may, by  notification in  the Official
 Gazette, prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of
 factories, the  cleaning, lubricating  or adjusting  by any  person of
 specified parts of machinery when those parts are in motion.
 
  
 23.
  
 Employment of young persons on dangerous machines.
  
 
      23. Employment  of young  persons on  dangerous machines.  (1) No
 young person  [shall be required or allowed to work] 2* at any machine
 to which  this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as
 to the  dangers  arising  in  connection  with  the  machine  and  the
 precautions to be observed and-
 
           (a)  has  received   sufficient  training  in  work  at  the
                machine, or
 
           (b)  is under  adequate supervision  by a  person who  has a
                through knowledge and experience of the machine.
 
      (2) sub-section  (1) shall  apply to  such  machines  as  may  be
 prescribed by  the State  Government,  being  machines  which  in  its
 opinion are  of such a dangerous character that young person ought not
 to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with.
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954. s. 6.
 2.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 10 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 50
 
  
 24.
  
 Striking gear and devices for cutting off power.
  
 
      24. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power. (1) In every
 factory-
 
           (a)  suitable striking  gear or  other efficient  mechanical
                appliance shall  be provided and maintained and used to
                move driving  belts to  and from fast and loose pulleys
                which form part of the transmission machinery, and such
                gear or  appliances shall be so constructed, placed and
                maintained as to prevent the belt from creeping back on
                to the fast pulley;
 
           (b)  driving belts  when not  in use shall not be allowed to
                rest or ride upon shafting in motion.
 
      (2) In  every factory  suitable devices  for cutting off power in
 emergencies from running machinery shall be provided and maintained in
 every work-room:
 
      Provided that  in respect  of factories  in operation  before the
 commencement of  this Act,  the provisions  of this  sub-section shall
 apply only to work-rooms in which electricity is used as power.
 
      1*[(3) When a device, which can inadvertently shift from "off" to
 "on" position, is provided in a factory to cut off power, arrangements
 shall be  provided for  locking the device in safe position to prevent
 accidental starting of the transmission machinery or other machines to
 which the device is fitted.]
 
  
 25.
  
 Self-acting machines.
  
 
      25. Self-acting  machines. No  traversing part  of a  self-acting
 machine in  any factory  and no material carried thereon shall, if the
 space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to
 pass, whether in the course of his employment or otherwise, be allowed
 to run  on its  outward  or  inward  traverse  within  a  distance  of
 2*[forty-five centimeters]  from any fixed structure which is not part
 of the machine:
 
      Provided that the Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of
 a machine installed before the commencement of this Act which does not
 comply with  the requirements  of this  section on such conditions for
 ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose.
 
  
 26.
  
 Casing of new machinery.
  
 
      26. Casing of new machinery. (1) In all machinery driven by power
 and installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,-
 
           (a)  every set  screw, bolt  or key  on any revolving shaft,
                spindle, wheel  or pinion  shall be so sunk, encased or
                otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger;
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 12 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 11 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 50A
 
           (b)  all spur,  worm and  other toothed  or friction gearing
                which does  not require  frequent adjustment  while  in
                motion shall  be completely  encased, unless  it is  so
                situated as  to be  as safe  as it  would be if it were
                completely encased.
 
      (2) Whoever  sells or  lets on  hire or,  as agent of a seller or
 hirer, causes  or procures  to be  sold or  let on  hire, for use in a
 factory any  machinery driven  by power which does not comply with the
 provisions of  1*[sub-section (1)  or any rules made under sub-section
 (3)], shall  be punishable  with imprisonment  for a  term  which  may
 extend to  three months  or with fine which may extend to five hundred
 rupees or with both.
 
      2*[(3) The  State Government  may make  rules specifying  further
 safeguards to  be provided  in respect  of any other dangerous part of
 any particular machine or class or description of machines.]
 
  
 27.
  
 Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers.
  
 
      27. Prohibition  of employment of women and children near cotton-
 openers. No  woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory
 for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work:
 
      Provided that  if the  feed-end of  a cotton-opener  is in a room
 separated from  the delivery  end by a partition extending to the roof
 or to  such height as the Inspector may in any particular case specify
 in writing,  women and  children may  be employed  on the  side of the
 partition where the feed-end is situated.
 
  
 28.
  
 Hoists and lifts.
  
 
      28. Hoists and lifts. (1) In every factory-
 
           (a)  every hoist and lift shall be--
 
                          (i) of  good mechanical  construction,  sound
                     material and adequate strength:
 
                          (ii)  properly   maintained,  and   shall  be
                     thoroughly examined by a competent person at least
                     once in every period of six months, and a register
                     shall   be    kept   containing   the   prescribed
                     particulars of every such examination;
 
           (b)  every  hoistway   and  liftway  shall  be  sufficiently
                protected by  an enclosure  fitted with  gates, and the
                hoist or  lift and  every such  enclosure shall  be  so
                constructed as to
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 7, for "sub-section (1)".
 2.   Subs. by s. 7, ibid.
 
 50B
 
                prevent any  person or thing from being trapped between
                any part  of the  hoist or lift and any fixed structure
                or moving part;
 
           (c)  the maximum  safe working  load shall be plainly marked
                on every  hoist or  lift, and no load greater than such
                load shall be carried thereon;
 
           (d)  the cage  of every  hoist or  lift  used  for  carrying
                persons shall  be fitted  with a gate on each side from
                which access is afforded to a landing;
 
           (e)  every gate  referred to  in clause  (b) or  clause  (d)
                shall be  fitted with  interlocking or  other efficient
                device to secure
 
 51
 
                that the  gate cannot be opened except when the cage is
                at the landing and that the cage cannot be moved unless
                the gate is closed.
 
      (2) The  following additional  requirements shall apply to hoists
 and lifts  used for carrying persons and installed or reconstructed in
 a factory after the commencement of this Act, namely:-
 
           (a)  where the  cage is  supported by  rope or  chain, there
                shall be  at  least  two  ropes  or  chains  separately
                connected with  the cage  and balance  weight, and each
                rope or  chain with its attachments shall be capable of
                carrying the whole weight of the cage together with its
                maximum load;
 
           (b)  efficient devices  shall  be  provided  and  maintained
                capable  of  supporting  the  cage  together  with  its
                maximum load  in the  event of  breakage of  the ropes,
                chains or attachments;
 
           (c)  an efficient  automatic device  shall be  provided  and
                maintained to prevent the cage from over-running.
 
      (3) The  Chief Inspector  may permit the continued use of a hoist
 or lift  installed in  a factory  before the  commencement of this Act
 which does  not fully  comply with  the provisions  of sub-section (1)
 upon such  conditions for  ensuring safety  as he  may  think  fit  to
 impose.
 
      (4) The  State Government  may, if  in respect  of any  class  or
 description of  hoist or  lift, it  is of  opinion that  it  would  be
 unreasonable to  enforce any  requirement of sub-sections (1) and (2),
 by order direct that such requirement shall not apply to such class or
 description of hoist or lift.
 
      1*[Explanation.--For  the  purposes of  this section,  no lifting
 machine or  appliance shall  be deemed to be a hoist or lift unless it
 has a  platform or  cage,  the  direction  or  movement  of  which  is
 restricted by a guide or guides.]
 
  
 29.
  
 Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles.
  
 
      2*[29. Lifting  machines, chains,  ropes and lifting tackles. (1)
 In any  factory the  following provisions  shall be  complied with  in
 respect of  every lifting  machine (other  than a  hoist and lift) and
 every chain,  rope and  lifting tackle  for the  purpose of raising or
 lowering persons, goods or materials:-
 
           (a)  all parts, including the working gear, whether fixed or
                movable, of every lifting machine and every chain, rope
                or lifting tackle shall be--
 
                          (i) of  good construction, sound material and
                     adequate strength and free from defects;
 
                          (ii) properly maintained; and
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  12 (w.e.f.  1.12.1987)
 2.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 8.
 
 52
 
                          (iii)  thoroughly  examined  by  a  competent
                     person at  least once  in every  period of  twelve
                     months,  or   at  such   intervals  as  the  Chief
                     Inspector may  specify in  writing; and a register
                     shall   be    kept   containing   the   prescribed
                     particulars of every such examination;
 
           (b)  no lifting machine and no chain, rope or lifting tackle
                shall, except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond
                the safe  working load  which shall  be plainly  marked
                thereon together  with an  identification mark and duly
                entered in  the prescribed  register; and where this is
                not practicable, a table showing the safe working loads
                of every  kind and  size of  lifting machine  or chain,
                rope or  lifting tackle  in use  shall be  displayed in
                prominent positions on the premises;
 
           (c)  while any  person is employed or working on or near the
                wheel track of a travelling crane in any place where he
                would be  liable to  be struck  by the crane, effective
                measures shall  be taken  to ensure that the crane does
                not approach within 1*[six months] of that place.
 
      (2) The State Government may make rules in respect of any lifting
 machine or any chain, rope or lifting tackle used in factories-
 
           (a)  prescribing further requirements to be complied with in
                addition to those set out in this section;
 
           (b)  providing for exemption from compliance with all or any
                of the  requirements of  this  section,  where  in  its
                opinion,   such    compliance   is    unnecessary    or
                impracticable.
 
      (3) For  the purposes  of this  section a  lifting machine  or  a
 chain, rope  or lifting tackle shall be deemed to have been thoroughly
 examined if  a visual examination supplemented, if necessary, by other
 means and  by the  dismantling of  parts of the gear, has been carried
 out as  carefully as  the conditions  permit in  order to  arrive at a
 reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined.
 
      Explanation.--In this section,--
 
           (a)  "lifting machine"  means a  crane, crab,  which  teagle
                pulley block, gin wheel, transporter or runway;
 
           1*[(b) "lifting  tackle" means  any chain sling, rope sling,
                hook, shackle, swivel, coupling, socket, clamp, tray or
                similar appliance,  whether fixed  or movable,  used in
                connection with  the raising or lowering of persons, or
                loads by use of lifting machines."]
 
  
 30.
  
 Revolving machinery.
  
 
      30. Revolving  machinery. (1)  2*[In every  factory] in which the
 process of  grinding is  carried on there shall be permanently affixed
 to or placed near each
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by At 20 of 1987, s 13 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 2.   Subs. by s. 14, ibid (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 53
 
 machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral
 speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel, the speed of the shaft or
 spindle upon  which the  wheel is  mounted, and  the diameter  of  the
 pulley upon  such shaft  or spindle  necessary  to  secure  such  safe
 working peripheral speed.
 
      (2) The  speeds indicated  in notices under sub-section (1) shall
 not be exceeded.
 
      (3) Effective  measures shall be taken in every factory to ensure
 that the  safe working  peripheral speed  of every  revolving  vessel,
 cage, basket,  flywheel, pulley,  disc or  similar appliance driven by
 power is not exceeded.
 
  
 31
  
 Pressure plant.
  
 
      31 Presssure  plant.   1*[(1)  If  in any  factory, any  plant or
 machinery or  any  part  thereof  is  operated  at  a  pressure  above
 atmospheric pressure, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that
 the  safe  working  pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not
 exceeded.]
 
      (2) The  State  Government  may  make  rules  providing  for  the
 examination and  testing of any plant or machinery such as is referred
 to in  sub-section (1)  and prescribing  such other safety measures in
 relation thereto  as may in its opinion be necessary in any factory or
 class or description of factories.
 
      2*[(3) The  State Government  may, by  rules, exempt,  subject to
 such conditions  as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or
 machinery referred  to in  sub-section (1) from the provisions of this
 section.]
 
  
 32.
  
 Floors, stairs and means of access.
  
 
      32. Floors, stairs and means of access. In every factory--
 
           (a)  all floors,  steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall
                be of sound construction and properly maintained 3*[and
                shall be  kept free  from obstructions  and  substances
                likely to  cause persons  to slip],  and  where  it  is
                necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages and
                gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails;
 
           (b)  there shall,  so far  as is  reasonably practicable, be
                provided and  maintained safe  means of access to every
                place at  which any  person is  at any time required to
                work;
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  15 (w.e.f.  1.12.1987).
 2.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 13 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Ins. by s. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 54
 
           1*[(c)  when  any person  has to work at a height from where
                he is  likely to  fall, provision shall be made, so far
                as is  reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise,
                to ensure the safety of the person so working.]
 
  
 33.
  
 Pits, sumps, openings in floors, etc.
  
 
      33. Pits,  sumps, openings  in floors,  etc. (1) In every factory
 every fixed  vessel, sump,  tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a
 floor which,  by reason  of  its  depth,  situation,  construction  or
 contents, is  or may  be a  source of danger, shall be either securely
 covered or securely fenced.
 
      (2) The  State Government  may,  by  order  in  writing,  exempt,
 subject to  such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class
 or description  of factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit
 or opening from compliance with the provisions of this section.
 
  
 34.
  
 Excessive weights.
  
 
      34. Excessive  weights. (1)  No person  shall be  employed in any
 factory to  lift, carry  or move  any load so heavy as to be likely to
 cause him injury.
 
      (2) The  State Government  may make rules prescribing the maximum
 weights which  may be  lifted, carried  or moved  by adult  men, adult
 women, adolescents  and children employed in factories or in any class
 or description of factories or in carrying on any specified process.
 
  
 35.
  
 Protection of eyes.
  
 
      35. Protection  of eyes.  In respect  of any  such  manufacturing
 process carried  on in  any factory  as may  be  prescribed,  being  a
 process which involves--
 
           (a)  risk of  injury to the eyes from particles or fragments
                thrown off in the course of the process, or
 
           (b)  risk to  the eyes  by reason  of exposure  to excessive
                light,
 
 the State  Government may  by rules  require that effective screens or
 suitable goggles  shall be  provided for  the  protection  of  persons
 employed on, or in the immediate vicinity of, the process.
 
  
 36.
  
 Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc.
  
 
      2*[36.  Precautions  against dangerous  fumes, gases, etc. (1) No
 person shall  be required  or allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat,
 pit, pipe,  flue or  other confined  space in any factory in which any
 gas, fume, vapour or dust is likely to be present to such an extent as
 to involve  risk to  persons being  overcome  thereby,  unless  it  is
 provided with  a manhole  of adequate size or other effective means of
 egress.
 
      (2) No  person shall be required or allowed to enter any confined
 space as  is referred  to in  sub-section (1),  until all  practicable
 measures have  been taken  to remove  any gas,  fume, vapour  or dust,
 which may  be present  so as to bring its level within the permissible
 limits and  to prevent  any ingress  of such gas, fume, vapour or dust
 and unless-
 
           (a)  a certificate  in writing has been given by a competent
                person, based on a test carried out by himself that the
                space is  reasonably free  from  dangerous  gas,  fume,
                vapour or dust; or
 
           (b)  such person is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and
                a belt  securely attached  to a  rope the  free end  of
                which is held by a person outside the confined space."]
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 16 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 2.   Subs. by s. 17, ibid. (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 55
 
 
  
 36A.
  
 Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light.
  
 
      1*[36A. Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light.
 In any factory--
 
           (a)  no  portable  electric  light  or  any  other  electric
                appliance of  voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall
                be permitted  for use  inside any  chamber, tank,  vat,
                pit, pipe,  flue or  other confined  space;  2*[ unless
                adequate safety devices are provided] and
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act  94 of 1976 s. 16, (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 18 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 56
 
           (b)  if any  inflammable gas,  fume or  dust is likely to be
                present in  such chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or
                other confined  space, no lamp or light other than that
                of flame-proof  construction shall  be permitted  to be
                used therein.]
 
  
 37.
  
 Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc.
  
 
      37. Explosive  or inflammable  dust, gas,  etc. (1)  Where in any
 factory any  manufacturing process  produces dust, gas, fume or vapour
 of such  character and  to such  extent as  to be likely to explode on
 ignition, all  practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such
 explosion by--
 
           (a)  effective enclosure  of the  plant or machinery used in
                the process;
 
           (b)  removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust,
                gas, fume or vapour;
 
           (c)  exclusion  or   effective  enclosure  of  all  possible
                sources of ignition.
 
      (2) Where in any factory the plant or machinery used in a process
 such as  is referred to in sub-section (1) is not so constructed as to
 withstand the  probable pressure  which such an explosion as aforesaid
 would produce, all practicable measures shall be taken to restrict the
 spread and  effects of  the explosion by the provision in the plant or
 machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective appliances.
 
      (3) Where  any part  of the  plant  or  machinery  in  a  factory
 contains any  explosive or  inflammable gas  or vapour  under pressure
 greater than  atmospheric pressure,  that part  shall  not  be  opened
 except in accordance with the following provisions, namely:--
 
           (a)  before the fastening of any joint of any pipe connected
                with the  part or  the fastening  of the  cover of  any
                opening into  the part is the cover of any opening into
                the part  is loosened,  any flow  of the  gas or vapour
                into the  part of  any such  pipe shall  be effectively
                stopped by a stop-valve or other means;
 
           (b)  before any  such fastening as aforesaid is removed, all
                practicable measures  shall  be  taken  to  reduce  the
                pressure of  the gas  or vapour  in the part of pipe to
                atmospheric pressure;
 
           (c)  where any such fastening as aforesaid has been loosened
                or removed effective measures shall be taken to prevent
                any  explosive   or  inflammable  gas  or  vapour  from
                entering the  part or pipe until the fastening has been
                secured, or, as the case may be, securely replaced:
 
 57
 
      Provided that  the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply
 in the case of plant or machinery installed in the open air.
 
      (4) No  plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any
 explosive or  inflammable substance  shall be subjected in any factory
 to any welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operation which involves
 the application of heat unless adequate measures have first been taken
 to remove  such substance and any fumes arising therefrom or to render
 such substance and fumes non-explosive or non-inflammable, and no such
 substance shall  be allowed  to enter such plant, tank or vessel after
 any such  operation until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent
 any risk of igniting the substance.
 
      (5) The  State Government  may by  rules exempt,  subject to such
 conditions as  may be  prescribed, any factory or class or description
 of factories from compliance with all or any of the provisions of this
 section.
 
  
 38.
  
 Prescautions in case of fire.
  
 
      1*[38.  Precautions  in case  of fire.  (1) In every factory, all
 practicable measures  shall be  taken to  prevent outbreak of fire and
 its spread,  both  internally  and  externally,  and  to  provide  and
 maintain--
 
           (a)  safe means  of escape for all persons in the event of a
                fire, and
 
           (b)  the   necessary    equipment   and    facilities    for
                extinguishing fire.
 
      (2) Effective  measures shall  be taken  to ensure  that in every
 factory all  the workers are familiar with the means of escape in case
 of fire and have been adequately trained in the routine to be followed
 in such cases.
 
      (3) The  State Government  may make  rules,  in  respect  of  any
 factory or  class or  description of factories, requiring the measures
 to be adopted to give effect to the provisions of sub-sections (1) and
 (2).
 
      (4) Notwithstanding  anything contained  in clause  (a)  of  sub-
 section (1)  or sub-section (2), if the Chief Inspector, having regard
 to the  nature of the work carried on in any factory, the construction
 of such  factory, special  risk  to  life  or  safety,  or  any  other
 circumstances, is  of the  opinion that  the measures  provided in the
 factory, whether  as prescribed or not, for the purposes of clause (a)
 of sub-section  (1) or  sub-section (2),  are inadequate,  he may,  by
 order in  writing, require  that such  additional measures  as he  may
 consider reasonable  and necessary,  be provided in the factory before
 such date as it specified in the order.]
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 19 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 59
 
  
 39.
  
 Power to  require  specifications  of  defective  parts  or  tests  ofstability.
  
 
      39. Power  to require  specifications of defective parts or tests
 of stability. If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part
 of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory
 is in  such a  condition that  it may  be dangerous  to human  life or
 safety, he  may serve  on 1*[the  occupier or  manager or both] of the
 factory an order in writing requiring him before a specified date--
 
           (a)  to furnish  such  drawings,  specifications  and  other
                particulars as  may be  necessary to  determine whether
                such building,  ways, machinery  or plant  can be  used
                with safety, or
 
           (b)  to carry  out such  tests in  such  manner  as  may  be
                specified in  the order, and to inform the Inspector of
                the results thereof.
 
  
 40.
  
 Safety of buildings and machinery.
  
 
      40. Safety  of buildings  and machinery. (1) If it appears to the
 Inspector that  any building  or part of a building or any part of the
 ways, machinery  or plant  in a factory is in such a condition that it
 is dangerous  to human life or safety, he may serve on 1*[the occupier
 or manager  or both] of the factory an order in writing specifying the
 measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to
 be carried out before a specified date.
 
      (2) If  it appears  to the Inspector that the use of any building
 or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a
 factory involves imminent danger to human life or safety, he may serve
 on 1*[the  occupier or  manager or  both] of  the factory  an order in
 writing prohibiting  its use  until it  has been  properly repaired or
 altered.
 
  
 40A.
  
 Maintenance of buildings.
  
 
      2*[40A. Maintenance  of buildings. If it appears to the Inspector
 that any  building or  part of  a building  in a  factory is in such a
 state of  disrepair as  is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to
 the health and welfare of the workers, he may serve on the occupier or
 manager or  both of  the factory  an order  in writing  specifying the
 measures which  in his  opinion should be taken and requiring the same
 to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.
 
  
 40B.
  
 Safety Officers.
  
 
      40B. Safety Officers. (1) In every factory,--
 
           (i)  wherein one  thousand or  more workers  are  ordinarily
                employed, or
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 18, for "the manager" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 19, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 60
 
           (ii) wherein, in  the opinion  of the  State Government, any
                manufacturing process or operation is carried on, which
                process  or  operation  involves  any  risk  of  bodily
                injury, poisoning  or disease,  or any  other hazard to
                health, to the persons employed in the factory,
 
 the occupier  shall,  if  so  required  by  the  State  Government  by
 notification in  the Official  Gazette, employ  such number  of Safety
 Officers as may be specified in that notification.
 
      (2) The  duties, qualifications  and  conditions  of  service  of
 Safety Officers  shall be  such as  may be  prescribed  by  the  State
 Government.]
 
  
 41.
  
 Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter
  
 
      41. Power  to make  rules to  supplement this  Chapter. The State
 Government may make rules requiring the provision in any factory or in
 any class  or description  of factories of such further 1*[devices and
 measures] for  securing the  safety of  persons employed therein as it
 may deem necessary.
 
  
 CHAP
  
 PROVISIONS RELATING TO HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
  
 
                            2*[CHAPTER IV A
 
               PROVISIONS RELATING TO HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
 
  
 41A.
  
 Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees.
  
 
      41A. Constitution  of Site  Appraisal Committees.  (1) The  State
 Government may,  for purposes  of advising it to consider applications
 for grant  of  permission  for  the  initial  location  of  a  factory
 involving a  hazardous process  or  for  the  expansion  of  any  such
 factory, appoint a Site Appraisal Committee consisting of--
 
           (a)  the Chief  Inspector of  the State  who  shall  be  its
                Chairman;
 
           (b)  a  representative   of  the   Central  Board   for  the
                Prevention and  Control of Water Pollution appointed by
                the Central  Government under  section 3  of the  Water
                (Prevention and  Control of Pollution) Act, 1974  (6 of
                1974);
 
           (c)  a  representative   of  the   Central  Board   for  the
                Prevention and  Control of Air Pollution referred to in
                section  3  of  the  Air  (Prevention  and  Control  of
                Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);
 
           (d)  a representative  of the  State Board  appointed  under
                section 4  of the  Water  (Prevention  and  Control  of
                Pollution) Act, 1974; (6 of 1974).
 
           (e)  a representative  of the State Board for the Prevention
                and Control  of Air  Pollution referred to in section 5
                of the  Air (Prevention  and Control of Pollution) Act,
                1981 (14 of 1981);
 
           (f)  a representative  of the  Department of  Environment in
                the State;
 
           (g)  a representative  of the  Meteorological Department  of
                the Government of India;
 
           (h)  an expert in the field of occupational health; and
 
           (i)  a representative of the Town Planning Department of the
                State Government,
 
 and not  more than five other members who may be co-opted by the State
 Government who shall be--
 
           (i)  a  scientist   having  specialised   knowledge  of  the
                hazardous  process   which  will  be  involved  in  the
                factory,
 
           (ii) a representative  of the  local authority  within whose
                jurisdiction the factory is to be established, and
 
           (iii)not more  than three other persons as deemed fit by the
                State Government.
 
      (2) The Site Appraisal Committee shall examine an application for
 the establishment  of a  factory involving  hazardous process and make
 its recommendation  to the  State Government within a period of ninety
 days of the receipt of such applications in the prescribed form.
 
      (3) Where any process relates to a factory owned or controlled by
 the Central  Government or  to a  corporation or  a company  owned  or
 controlled by  the Central  Government, the State Government shall co-
 opt in  the Site Appraisal Committee a representative nominated by the
 Central Government as a member of that Committee.
 
      (4) The Site Appraisal Committee shall have power to call for any
 information  from   the  person   making  an   application   for   the
 establishment or expansion of a factory involving a hazardous process.
 
      (5) Where  the  State  Government  has  granted  approval  to  an
 application for  the establishment or expansion of a factory involving
 a hazardous  process, it  shall not  be necessary  for an applicant to
 obtain a  further approval  from the  Central Board or the State Board
 established under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,
 1974 (6 of 1974) and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)  A
 Act 1981 (14 of 1981).
 
  
 41B.
  
 Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier.
  
 
      41B. Compulsory  disclosure of  information by  the occupier. (1)
 The occupier  of every  factory involving  a hazardous  process  shall
 disclose in  the manner  prescribed all information regarding dangers,
 including health  hazards and  the measures  to overcome  such hazards
 arising  from  the  exposure  to  or  handling  of  the  materials  or
 substances in  the  manufacture,  transportation,  storage  and  other
 processes,  to   the  workers  employed  in  the  factory,  the  Chief
 Inspector, the  local authority  within whose jurisdiction the factory
 is situate and the general public in the vicinity.
 
      (2) The  occupier shall,  at the  time of registering the factory
 involving a  hazardous process lay down a detailed policy with respect
 to the  health and safety of the workers employed therein and intimate
 such policy  to the  Chief Inspector  and  the  local  authority  and,
 thereafter, at  such intervals  as may be prescribed, inform the Chief
 Inspector and  the local  authority of  any change  made in  the  said
 policy.
 
      (3) The information furnished under sub-section (1) shall include
 accurate information  as to  the quantity,  specifications  and  other
 characteristics of wastes and the manner of their disposal.
 
      (4)  Every  occupier  shall,  with  the  approval  of  the  Chief
 Inspector, draw  up an  on-site emergency  plan and  detailed disaster
 control measures  for his  factory  and  make  known  to  the  workers
 employed therein  and to  the general public living in the vicinity of
 the factory  the safety  measures required to be taken in the event of
 an accident taking place.
 
      (5) Every occupier of a factory shall,--
 
           (a)  if such  factory engaged  in a hazardous process on the
                commencement of  the Factories  (Amendment) Act,  1987,
                within a  period of  thirty days  of such commencement;
                and
 
           (b)  if such  factory proposes  to  engage  in  a  hazardous
                process at  any time  after such commencement, within a
                period of  thirty days  before the commencement of such
                process,
 
 inform the Chief Inspector of the nature and details of the process in
 such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.
 
      (6) Where any occupier of a factory contravenes the provisions of
 sub-section (5),  the licence  issued under  section 6 to such factory
 shall, notwithstanding  any penalty  to which  the occupier or factory
 shall be  subjected to under the provisions of this Act, be liable for
 cancellation.
 
      (7) The  occupier of  a factory  involving  a  hazardous  process
 shall, with  the previous  approval of  the Chief  Inspector, lay down
 measures for  the  handling,  usage,  transportation  and  storage  of
 hazardous substances inside the factory premises and publicise them in
 the manner  prescribed among the workers and the general public living
 in the vicinity.
 
  
 41C.
  
 Specifice responsibility  of the  occupier in  relation  to  hazardoueprocesses.
  
 
      41C. Specifice  responsibility of  the occupier  in  relation  to
 hazardoue  processes.  Every  occupier  of  a  factory  involving  any
 hazardous process shall--
 
           (a)  maintain accurate  and up-to-date health records or, as
                the case may be, medical records, of the workers in the
                factory who  are exposed  to any chemical, toxic or any
                other  harmful   substances  which   are  manufactured,
                stored, handled  or transported  and such records shall
                be accessible to the workers subject to such conditions
                as may be prescribed;
 
           (b)  appoint  persons   who   possess   qualifications   and
                experience in  handling hazardous  substances  and  are
                competent to supervise such handling within the factory
                and to  provide at  the working place all the necessary
                facilities for  protecting the  workers in  the  manner
                prescribed:
 
                     Provided that  where any question arises as to the
                qualifications and experience of a person so appointed,
                the decision of the Chief Inspector shall be final;
 
           (c)  provide for medical examination of every worker--
 
                (a)  before such  worker is assigned to a job involving
                     the handling  of, or  working  with,  a  hazardous
                     substance, and
 
                (b)  while continuing  in such  job, and  after he  has
                     ceased to  work in  such  job,  at  intervals  not
                     exceeding twelve  months, in such manner as may be
                     prescribed.
 
  
 41D.
  
 Power of Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee.
  
 
      41D. Power  of Central  Government to  appoint Inquiry Committee.
 (1) The  Central Government  may, in the event of the occurrence of an
 extraordinary situation  involving a  factory engaged  in a  hazardous
 process, appoint an Inquiry Committee to inquire into the standards of
 health and  safety observed  in the factory with a view to finding out
 the causes  of any  failure or neglect in the adoption of any measures
 or standards  prescribed for  the health  and safety  of  the  workers
 employed in the factory or the general public affected or likely to be
 affected, due  to such  failure or  neglect and for the prevention and
 recurrence of  such extraordinary situations in future in such factory
 or elsewhere.
 
      (2) The  Committee appointed  under sub-section (1) shall consist
 of a  Chairman and two other members and the terms of reference of the
 Committee and  the tenure of office of its member shall be such as may
 be determined  by the Central Government according to the requirements
 of the situation.
 
      (3) The  recommendations of  the Committee  shall be  advisory in
 nature.
 
  
 41E.
  
 Emergency standards.
  
 
      41E. Emergency  standards. (1)  Where the  Central Government  is
 satisfied that  no standards of safety have been prescribed in respect
 of a  hazardous process  or class of hazardous processes, or where the
 standards so  prescribed are  inadequate, it  may direct the Director-
 General of  Factory  Advice  Service  and  Labour  Institutes  or  any
 institution specialised  in matters relating to standards of safety in
 hazardous processes,  to lay  down emergency standards for enforcement
 of suitable standards in respect of such hazardous processes.
 
      (2) The  emergency standards  laid down  under sub-section shall,
 until  they   are  incorporated  in  the  rules  made  under  this  be
 enforceable and  have the same effect as if they had been incorporated
 in the rules made under this Act.
 
  
 41F.
  
 Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic sub-stances.
  
 
      3*[41F. Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic sub-
 stances. (1)  The maximum  permissible threshold limits of exposure of
 chemical and  toxic substances  in  manufacturing  processes  (whether
 hazardous or otherwise) in any factory shall be of the value indicated
 in the Second Schedule.
 
      (2) The  Central Government  may, at any time, for the purpose of
 giving effect  to  any  scientific  proof  obtained  from  specialised
 institutions or  experts in the field, by notification in the Official
 Gazette, make suitable changes in the said Schedule.]
 
  
 41G.
  
 Workers' participation in safety management.
  
 
      41G.  Workers'   participation  in  safety  management.  (1)  The
 occupier shall,  in every  factory where  a  hazardous  process  takes
 place, or  where hazardous  substances are  used or  handled, set up a
 Safety Committee  consisting of  equal number  of  representatives  of
 workers and  management to promote cooperation between the workers and
 the management  in maintaining proper safety and health at work and to
 review periodically the measures taken in that behalf:
 
      Provided that  the State  Government may, by order in writing and
 for reasons  to be  recorded, exempt  the occupier  of any  factory or
 class of factories from setting up such Committee.
 
      (2) The composition of the Safety Committee, the tenure of office
 of its  members and  their rights  and duties  shall be such as may be
 prescribed.
 
  
 41H.
  
 Right of workers to warn about imminent danger.
  
 
      41H. Right  of workers  to warn  about imminent danger. (1) Where
 the workers  employed in  any factory  engaged in  a hazardous process
 have reasonable  apprehension that  there is  a likelihood of imminent
 danger to  their lives  or health  due to any accident, they may bring
 the same  to the  notice of  the occupier, agent, manager or any other
 person who  is incharge  of  the  factory  or  the  process  concerned
 directly or  through their representatives in the Safety Committee and
 simultaneously bring the same to the notice of the Inspector.
 
      (2) It  shall be the duty of such occupier, agent, manager or the
 person incharge  of the  factory or process to take immediate remedial
 action if  he is satisfied about the existence of such imminent danger
 and send  a report  forthwith of  the  action  taken  to  the  nearest
 Inspector.
 
      (3) If  the occupier,  agent,  manager  or  the  person  incharge
 referred to in sub-section (2) is not satisfied about the existence of
 any  imminent   danger  as  apprehended  by  the  workers,  he  shall,
 nevertheless, refer  the matter  forthwith to  the  nearest  Inspector
 whose decision  on the  question of  the existence  of  such  imminent
 danger shall be final."]
 
  
 CHAP
  
 WELFARE
  
 
                               CHAPTER V
 
                                WELFARE
 
  
 42.
  
 Washing facilities.
  
 
      42. Washing facilities. (1) In every factory--
 
           (a)  adequate and  suitable facilities  for washing shall be
                provided and  maintained for  the use  of  the  workers
                therein;
 
           (b)  separate and  adequately screened  facilities shall  be
                provided for the use of male and female workers;
 
           (c)  such facilities  shall be  conveniently accessible  and
                shall be kept clean.
 
      (2) The  State Government may, in respect of any factory or class
 or description of factories or of any manufacturing process, prescribe
 standards of adequate and suitable facilities for washing.
 
  
 43.
  
 Facilities for storing and drying clothing.
  
 
      43.  Facilities  for  storing  and  drying  clothing.  The  State
 Government may,  in respect  of any factory or class or description of
 factories, make  rules requiring  the provision  therein  of  suitable
 places for  keeping clothing not worn during working hours and for the
 drying of wet clothing.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 20, for the word "devices" (w.e.f.
      26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 20 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 3.   Ins by s. 20, (w.e.f. 1-6-1988).
 
 60A
 
  
 44.
  
 Facilities for sitting.
  
 
      44.  Facilities  for  sitting.  (1)  In  every  factory  suitable
 arrangements for  sitting shall  be provided  and maintained  for  all
 workers obliged to work in a standing position, in order that they may
 take advantage  of any  opportunities for  rest which may occur in the
 course of their work.
 
      (2) If,  in, the  opinion of  the Chief Inspector, the workers in
 any factory  engaged in  a particular manufacturing process or working
 in a  particular room  are able  to do  their work  efficiently  in  a
 sitting position, he may, by order in writing, require the occupier of
 the  factory   to  provide   before  a  specified  date  such  seating
 arrangements as  may be  practicable for  all workers  so  engaged  or
 working.
 
      (3) The  State Government  may, by  notification in  the Official
 Gazette, declare  that the  provisions of  sub-section (1)  shall  not
 apply to any specified factory or class or description of factories or
 to any specified manufacturing process.
 
  
 45.
  
 First-aid appliances.
  
 
      45. First-aid  appliances. (1)  There shall  in every  factory be
 provided and  maintained so  as to  be readily  accessible during  all
 working  hours   first-aid  boxes   or  cupboards  equipped  with  the
 prescribed contents,  and the  number of such boxes or cupboards to be
 provided and  maintained shall  not be  less than  one for  every  one
 hundred and  fifty workers  ordinarily employed 1*[at any one time] in
 the factory.
 
      2*[(2) Nothing  except the prescribed contents shall be kept in a
 first-aid box or cupboard.
 
      (3) Each first-aid box or cupboard shall be kept in the charge of
 a separate  responsible person 3*[who holds a certificate in first-aid
 treatment recognised  by the State Government] and who shall always be
 readily available during the working hours of the factory.]
 
      4*[(4)] In  every factory  wherein more than five hundred workers
 are 5*[ordinarily  employed] there shall be provided and maintained an
 ambulance room  of the  prescribed  size,  containing  the  prescribed
 equipment and  in the  charge of such medical and nursing staff as may
 be prescribed  6*[and those  facilities shall  always be  made readily
 available during the working hours of the factory].
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 9.
 2.   Subs. by s. 9, ibid., for original sub-section (2).
 3.   Subs. by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 21, for certain words (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 4.   Sub-section (3)  renumbered as sub-section (4) by Act 25 of 1954,
      s. 9.
 5.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 21,  for "employed" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 6.   Ins. by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 60B
 
  
 46.
  
 Canteens.
  
 
      46. Canteens.  (1) The  State Government may make rules requiring
 that in  any specified factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty
 workers are  ordinarily employed,  a  canteen  or  canteens  shall  be
 provided and maintained by the occupier for the use of the workers.
 
      (2) Without  prejudice to  the generality of the foregoing power,
 such rules may provide for--
 
           (a)  the date by which such canteen shall be provided;
 
           (b)  the   standards    in    respect    of    construction,
                accommodation, furniture  and other  equipment  of  the
                canteen;
 
           (c)  the foodstuffs  to be  served therein  and the  charges
                which may be made therefor;
 
           (d)  the  constitution  of  a  managing  committee  for  the
                canteen  and  representation  of  the  workers  in  the
                management of the canteen;
 
           1*[(dd) the  items of  expenditure in  the  running  of  the
                canteen which  are not  to be  taken  into  account  in
                fixing the  cost of foodstuffs and which shall be borne
                by the employer;]
 
           (e)  the delegation  to the Chief Inspector, subject to such
                conditions as  may be  prescribed, of the power to make
                rules under clause (c).
 
  
 47.
  
 Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms.
  
 
      47. Shelters,  rest rooms  and lunch  rooms. (1) In every factory
 wherein more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  workers  are  ordinarily
 employed, adequate  and suitable shelters or rest rooms and a suitable
 lunch room,  with provision  for drinking water, where workers can eat
 meals brought by them, shall be provided and maintained for the use of
 the workers:
 
      Provided that  any canteen  maintained  in  accordance  with  the
 provisions of section 46 shall be regarded as part of the requirements
 of this sub-section:
 
      Provided further  that where  a lunch room exists no worker shall
 eat any food in the work room.
 
      (2) The  shelters or  rest rooms  or lunch  rooms to  be provided
 under sub-section (1) shall be sufficiently lighted and ventilated and
 shall be maintained in a cool and clean condition.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 22 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 60C
 
      (3) The State Government may--
 
           (a)  prescribe the  standards in  respect  of  construction,
                accommodation,  furniture   and  other   equipment   of
                shelters, rest  rooms and  lunch rooms  to be  provided
                under this section;
 
           (b)  by notification  in the  Official Gazette,  exempt  any
                factory or  class or  description of factories from the
                requirements of this section.
 
  
 48.
  
 Creches.
  
 
      48. Creches.  (1) In  every factory  wherein more  than 1*[thirty
 women workers]  are ordinarily  employed there  shall be  provided and
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 23, for "fifty women workers" (w.e.f.
      26-10-1976).
 
 61
 
 maintaained a suitable  room or rooms for the use of   children  under
 the age of six years of such women.
 
      (2) Such  rooms shall  provide adequate  accommodation, shall  be
 adequately lighted  and ventilated, shall be maintained in a clean and
 sanitary condition  and shall  be under the charge of women trained in
 the care of children and infants.
 
      (3) The State Government may make rules--
 
           (a)  prescribing the  location and  the standards in respect
                of construction,  accommodation,  furniture  and  other
                equipment of rooms to be provided under this section;
 
           (b)  requiring the  provision in  factories  to  which  this
                section applies  of additional  facilities for the care
                of  children  belonging  to  women  workers,  including
                suitable  provision   of  facilities  for  washing  and
                changing their clothing;
 
           (c)  requiring the  provision in any factory of free milk or
                refreshment or both for such children;
 
           (d)  requiring that facilities shall be given in any factory
                for the  mothers of  such children  to feed them at the
                necessary intervals.
 
  
 49.
  
 Welfare officers.
  
 
      49. Welfare  officers. (1)  In every factory wherein five hundred
 or more  workers are  ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in
 the factory such number of welfare officers as may be prescribed.
 
      (2) The State Government may prescribe the duties, qualifications
 and conditions of service of officers employed under sub-section (1).
 
  
 50.
  
 Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter.
  
 
      50. Power  to make  rules to  supplement this  Chapter. The State
 Government may make rules--
 
           (a)  exempting, subject  to compliance with such alternative
                arrangements for  the welfare  of  workers  as  may  be
                prescribed, any  factory or  class  or  description  of
                factories from compliance with any of the provisions of
                this Chapter;
 
           (b)  requiring in  any factory  or class  or description  of
                factories that  representatives of the workers employed
                in the  factory shall be associated with the management
                of the welfare arrangements of the workers.
 
 62
 
  
 CHAP
  
 WORKING HOURS OF ADULTS
  
 
                               CHAPTER VI
 
                        WORKING HOURS OF ADULTS
 
  
 51.
  
 Weekly hours.
  
 
      51. Weekly hours. No adult worker shall be required or allowed to
 work in a factory for more than forty-eight hours in any week.
 
  
 52.
  
 Weekly holidays.
  
 
      52. Weekly  holidays. (1)  No adult  worker shall  be required or
 allowed to work in a factory on the first day of the week (hereinafter
 referred to as the said day), unless--
 
           (a)  he has or will have a holiday for a whole day on one of
                the three  days immediately  before or  after the  said
                day, and
 
           (b)  the manager  of the factory has, before the said day or
                the substituted  day under  clause  (a),  whichever  is
                earlier,--
 
                          (i) delivered  a notice  at the office of the
                     Inspector of  his intention  to require the worker
                     to work on the said day and of the day which is to
                     be substituted, and
 
                          (ii) displayed a notice to that effect in the
                     factory:
 
      Provided that  no substitution shall be made which will result in
 any worker  working for  more than  ten days  consecutively without  a
 holiday for a whole day.
 
      (2) Notices  given under  sub-section (1)  may be  cancelled by a
 notice delivered at the office of the Inspector and a notice displayed
 in the  factory not  later than  the day  before the  said day  or the
 holiday to be cancelled, whichever is earlier.
 
      (3) Where,  in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1),
 any worker  works on  the said day and has had a holiday on one of the
 three days immediately before it, that said day shall, for the purpose
 of calculating  his weekly hours of work, be included in the preceding
 week.
 
  
 53.
  
 Compensatory holidays.
  
 
      53. Compensatory  holidays. (1) Where, as a result of the passing
 of an  order or  the making of a rule under the provisions of this Act
 exempting a  factory or  the workers  therein from  the provisions  of
 section 52,  a worker  is deprived  of any  of the weekly holidays for
 which provision  is made  in sub-section (1) of that section, he shall
 be allowed,  within the month in which the holidays were due to him or
 within the  two months  immediately following that month, compensatory
 holidays of equal number of the holidays so lost.
 
 63
 
      (2) The  State Government  may prescribe  the manner in which the
 holidays for  which provision  is made  in sub-section  (1)  shall  be
 allowed.
 
  
 54.
  
 Daily hours.
  
 
      54. Daily  hours. Subject  to the  provisions of  section 51,  no
 adult worker  shall be  required or  allowed to  work in a factory for
 more than nine hours in any day:
 
      1*[Provided that,  subject to  the previous approval of the Chief
 Inspector, the daily maximum specified in this section may be exceeded
 in order to facilitate the change of shifts.]
 
  
 55.
  
 Intervals for rest.
  
 
      55. Intervals  for rest.  2*[(1)]3*[The periods of work] of adult
 workers in  a factory  each day shall be so fixed that no period shall
 exceed five  hours and  that no  worker shall  work for more than five
 hours before he has had an interval for rest of at least half an hour.
 
      4*[(2) The  State Government  or, subject  to the  control of the
 State Government,  the Chief  Inspector, may, by written order and for
 the reasons  specified therein, exempt any factory from the provisions
 of sub-section (1) so however that the total number of hours worked by
 a worker without an interval does not exceed six.]
 
  
 56.
  
 Spreadover.
  
 
      56. Spreadover.  The periods  of work  of an  adult worker  in  a
 factory shall  be so arranged that inclusive of his intervals for rest
 under section  55, they  shall not spreadover more than ten and a half
 hours in any day:
 
      Provided  that  the  Chief  Inspector  may,  for  reasons  to  be
 specified in writing, increase the 5*[spreadover up to twelve hours].
 
  
 57.
  
 Night shifts.
  
 
      57. Night  shifts. Where  a worker  in a factory works on a shift
 which extends beyond midnight,--
 
           (a)  for the purposes of sections 52 and 53, a holiday for a
                whole day  shall mean  in his  case a period of twenty-
                four consecutive hours beginning when his shift ends;
 
           (b)  the following  day for  him shall  be deemed  to be the
                period of  twenty-four hours  beginning when such shift
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Added by Act 25 of 1954, s. 10.
 2.   S. 55  renumbered as  sub-section (1)  of that  section by s. 11,
      ibid.
 3.   Subs. by Act 40 of 1949, s. 3 and Sch. II, for "The period".
 4.   Added by Act 25 of 1954, s. 11.
 5.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 24,  for the  words "spreadover to
      twelve hours" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 64
 
                ends, and the  hours he   has  worked   after  midnight
        shall be counted in the previous day.
 
  
 58.
  
 Prohibition of overlapping shifts.
  
 
      58. Prohibition  of overlapping  shifts. (1)  Work shall  not  be
 carried on  in any  factory by means of a system of shifts so arranged
 that more  than one  relay of  workers is  engaged in work of the same
 kind at the same time.
 
      1*[(2) The  State Government  or subject  to the  control of  the
 State Government,  the Chief  Inspector, may, by written order and for
 the reasons  specified therein,  exempt on  such conditions  as may be
 deemed expedient,  any factory or class or description of factories or
 any department  or section of a factory or any category or description
 of workers therein from the provisions of sub-section (1).]
 
  
 59.
  
 Extra wages for overtime.
  
 
      59. Extra  wages for  overtime. (1)  Where a  worker works  in  a
 factory for  more than  nine hours  in any day or for more than forty-
 eight hours  in any  week, he  shall, in  respect of overtime work, be
 entitled to wages at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of wages.
 
      2*[(2) For  the purposes  of sub-section  (1), "ordinary  rate of
 wages" means  the basic wages plus such allowances, including the cash
 equivalent of  the advantage accruing through the concessional sale to
 workers of  foodgrains and  other articles,  as the  worker is for the
 time being  entitled to,  but does  not include  a bonus and wages for
 overtime work.
 
      (3) Where  any workers  in a  factory are  paid on  a  piece-rate
 basis, the  time rate  shall be  deemed to  be equivalent to the daily
 average of  their full-time  earnings  for  the  days  on  which  they
 actually worked  on  the  same  or  identical  job  during  the  month
 immediately preceding  the calendar  month during  which the  overtime
 work was  done, and such time rates shall be deemed to be the ordinary
 rates of wages of those workers:
 
      Provided that  in the  case of a worker who has not worked in the
 immediately preceding calendar month on the same or identical job, the
 time rate shall be deemed to be equivalent to the daily average of the
 earning of  the worker for the days on which he actually worked in the
 week in which the overtime work was done.
 
      Explanation.--For the  purposes of  this sub-section in computing
 the earnings  for the  days on  which the  worker actually worked such
 allowances, including the cash equivalent of the advantage accruing
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 12.
 2.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 25,  for sub-sections  (2) and (3)
      (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 65
 
 through the  concessional sale  to workers  of  foodgrains  and  other
 articles, as  the worker  is for  the time being entitled to, shall be
 included but  any bonus or wages for overtime work payable in relation
 to the  period with reference to which the earnings are being computed
 shall be excluded.]
 
      1*[(4) The  cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the
 concessional sale  to a  worker of foodgrains and other articles shall
 be computed  as often as may be prescribed on the basis of the maximum
 quantity of  foodgrains and  other articles  admissible to  a standard
 family.
 
      Explanation 1.--"Standard  family" means  a family  consisting of
 the worker,  his or  her spouse  and two  children below  the  age  of
 fourteen years requiring in all three adult consumption units.
 
      Explanation 2.--"Adult  consumption unit"  means the  consumption
 unit of  a male  above the  age of fourteen years; and the consumption
 unit of  a female above the age of fourteen years; and that of a child
 below the age of fourteen years shall be calculated at the rates of .8
 and .6 respectively of one adult consumption unit.
 
      (5) The State Government may make rules prescribing-
 
           (a)  the  manner   in  which  the  cash  equivalent  of  the
                advantage accruing  through the  concessional sale to a
                worker  of  foodgrains  and  other  articles  shall  be
                computed; and
 
           (b)  the registers that shall be maintained in a factory for
                the purpose  of securing compliance with the provisions
                of this section.]
 
  
 60.
  
 Restriction on double employment.
  
 
      60. Restriction  on double  employment. No  adult worker shall be
 required or  allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has
 already been  working in any other factory, save in such circumstances
 as may be prescribed.
 
  
 61.
  
 Notice of periods of work for adults.
  
 
      61. Notice  of periods  of work  for adults.  (1) There  shall be
 displayed and correctly maintained in every factory in accordance with
 the provisions  of sub-section (2) of section 108, a notice of periods
 of work  for adults,  showing clearly for every day the periods during
 which adult workers may be required to work.
 
      (2) The  periods shown  in the notice required by sub-section (1)
 shall be  fixed beforehand in accordance with the following provisions
 of this section, and shall be such that workers working for those
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 13.
 
 66
 
 periods would not be working in contravention of any of the provisions
 of sections, 51,52,54, 1*[55,56 and 58].
 
      (3) Where all the adult workers in a factory are required to work
 during the  same periods,  the manager  of the factory shall fix those
 periods for such workers generally.
 
      (4) Where  all the adult workers in a factory are not required to
 work during  the same  periods,  the  manager  of  the  factory  shall
 classify them  into groups  according to  the  nature  of  their  work
 indicating the number of workers in each group.
 
      (5) For  each group  which is not required to work on a system of
 shifts, the  manager of the factory shall fix the periods during which
 the group may be required to work.
 
      (6) Where any group is required to work on a system of shifts and
 the relays  are not  to be subject to predetermined periodical changes
 of shifts,  the manager  of the  factory shall  fix the periods during
 which each relay of the group may be required to work.
 
      (7) Where  any group  is to  work on  a system  of shifts and the
 relays are  to be  subject  to  predetermined  periodical  changes  of
 shifts, the  manager of  the factory  shall draw up a scheme of shifts
 where-under the  periods during  which any  relay of  the group may be
 required to  work and  the relay  which will be working at any time of
 the day shall be known for any day.
 
      (8) The  State Government  may  prescribe  forms  of  the  notice
 required by  sub-section (1)  and the  manner in  which  it  shall  be
 maintained.
 
      (9)  In   the  case   of  a  factory  beginning  work  after  the
 commencement of  this Act,  a copy  of the  notice referred to in sub-
 section (1) shall be sent in duplicate to the Inspector before the day
 on which work is begun in the factory.
 
      (10) Any  proposed change  in the  system of  work in any factory
 which will  necessitate a  change in  the notice  referred to  in sub-
 section (1) shall be notified to the Inspector in duplicate before the
 change  is  made,  and  except  with  the  previous  sanction  of  the
 Inspector, no  such change  shall be  made until  one week has elapsed
 since the last change.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 14, for "55 and 56".
 
 67
 
  
 62.
  
 Register of adult workers.
  
 
      62. Register  of adult  workers. (1) The manager of every factory
 shall maintain  a register  of adult  workers, to  be available to the
 Inspector at all times during working hours, or when any work is being
 carried on in the factory, showing--
 
           (a)  the name of each adult worker in the factory;
 
           (b)  the nature of his work;
 
           (c)  the group, if any, in which he is included;
 
           (d)  where his  group works on shifts, the relay to which he
                is allotted;
 
           (e)  such other particulars as may be prescribed:
 
      Provided that,  if the  Inspector is  of opinion  that any muster
 roll or  register maintained as part of the routine of a factory gives
 in respect  of any  or all  the workers in the factory the particulars
 required under  this section, he may, by order in writing, direct that
 such muster  roll or  register shall  to the  corresponding extent  be
 maintained in  place of,  and be  treated as,  the register  of  adult
 workers in that factory.
 
      1*[(1A) No  adult worker  shall be required or allowed to work in
 any factory unless his name and other particulars have been entered in
 the register of adult workers.]
 
      (2) The  State Government  may prescribe the form of the register
 of adult  workers, the  manner in which it shall be maintained and the
 period for which it shall be preserved.
 
  
 63.
  
 Hours of  work to correspond with notice under section 61 and registerunder
 section 62.
  
 
      63. Hours  of work to correspond with notice under section 61 and
 register under  section 62.  No adult  worker  shall  be  required  or
 allowed to  work in  any factory otherwise than in accordance with the
 notice of  periods of work for adults displayed in the factory and the
 entries made  before-hand against  his name  in the  register of adult
 workers of the factory.
 
  
 64.
  
 Power to make exempting rules.
  
 
      64. Power  to make  exempting rules. (1) The State Government may
 make rules  defining the  persons who hold positions of supervision or
 management or  are employed  in a  confidential position  in a factory
 2*[or empowering the Chief Inspector to declare any person, other than
 a person  defined by  such rules,  as a  person  holding  position  of
 supervision or
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 26 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 27, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 68
 
 management or  employed in a confidential position in a factory if, in
 the opinion of the Chief Inspector, such person holds such position or
 is so  employed], and  the provisions  of this Chapter, other than the
 provisions of  clause (b)  of sub-section (1) of section 66 and of the
 proviso to  that sub-section, shall not apply to any person so defined
 1*[or declared]:
 
      1*[Provided that  any person  so defined or declared shall, where
 the ordinary  rate of wages of such person 2*[does not exceed the wage
 limit specified  in sub-section  (6) of  section 1  of the  Payment of
 Wages Act,  1936, as  amended from  time to time] be entitled to extra
 wages in respect of overtime work under section 59.]
 
      (2) The  State Government  may make  rules in  respect  of  adult
 workers in  factories providing  for the exemption, to such extent and
 subject to such conditions as may be prescribed--
 
           (a)  of  workers   engaged  on   urgent  repairs,  from  the
                provisions of section 51,52,54,55 and 56;
 
           (b)  of workers engaged in work in the nature of preparatory
                or complementary work which must necessarily be carried
                on outside the limits laid down for the general working
                of the factory, from the provisions of sections 51, 54,
                55 and 56;
 
           (c)  of workers  engaged in  work which  is  necessarily  so
                intermittent that  the intervals  during which  they do
                not work  while on  duty ordinarily amount to more than
                the intervals for rest required by or under section 55,
                from the provisions of sections 51, 54, 55 and 56;
 
           (d)  of workers  engaged in  any work  which  for  technical
                reasons must be carried on continuously  3*** from  the
                provisions of sections 51, 52, 54, 55 and 56;
 
           (e)  of workers  engaged in  making or supplying articles of
                prime necessity  which must  be made  or supplied every
                day, from  the provisions  of 4*[section 51 and section
                52];
 
           (f)  of workers  engaged in  a manufacturing  process  which
                cannot be  carried on except during fixed seasons, from
                the provisions of 3*[section 51, section 52 and section
                54];
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 27 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Subs.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  21 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 3.   The word "throughout the day" omitted by Act 25 of 1954, s. 15.
 4.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 27, for "section 52" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 
 69
 
           (g)  of workers  engaged in  a manufacturing  process  which
                cannot be  carried on  except at times dependent on the
                irregular action of natural forces, from the provisions
                of sections 52 and 55;
 
           (h)  of workers  engaged in engine-rooms or boiler-houses or
                in attending  to power-plant or transmission machinery,
                from the provisions of 1*[section 51 and section 52];
 
           2*[(i) of workers engaged in the printing of newspapers, who
                are held  up on  account of the breakdown of machinery,
                from the provisions of sections 51, 54 and 56.
 
           Explanation.--In this clause the expression "newspapers" has
           the meaning  assigned to it in the Press and Registration of
           Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867);
 
           (j)  of workers  engaged in  the  loading  or  unloading  of
                railway wagons  3*[or  lorries  or  trucks,]  from  the
                provisions of section 51, 52, 54, 55 and 56;]
 
           3*[(k) of  workers engaged in any work, which is notified by
                the State  Government in the Official Gazette as a work
                of national  importance, from the provisions of section
                51, section 52, section 54, section 55 and section 56.]
 
      (3) Rules  made under sub-section (2) providing for any exemption
 may also  provide for  any consequential exemption from the provisions
 of section  61 which  the State  Government may  deem to be expedient,
 subject to such conditions as it may prescribe.
 
      4*[(4) In  making rules  under this section, the State Government
 shall not  exceed, except  in respect of exemption under clause (a) of
 sub-section (2), the following limits of work inclusive of overtime:-
 
           (i)  the total  number of hours of work in any day shall not
                exceed ten;
           [B
           (ii) the spreadover,  inclusive of intervals for rest, shall
                not exceed twelve hours in any one day:
 
      Provided that  the State Government may, in respect of any or all
 of the categories of workers referred to in clause (d) of sub-section
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 27, for "section 52" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Added by Act 25 of 1954, s. 15.
 3.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 27 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 4.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 15, for sub-section (4).
 
 70
 
 (2), make  rules prescribing  the  circumstances  in  which,  and  the
 conditions subject  to which,  the restrictions  imposed by clause (i)
 and clause  (ii) shall  not apply in order to enable a shift worker to
 work the  whole or  part of  a subsequent  shift in  the absence  of a
 worker who has failed to report for duty;
 
           1*[(iii) the  total number  of hours  of  work  in  a  week,
                including overtime, shall not exceed sixty;]
 
           2*[(iv) the  total number  of hours  of overtime  shall  not
                exceed fifty for any one quarter.
 
           Explanation.--"Quarter" means  a period of three consecutive
           months beginning on the 1st of January, the 1st of April the
           1st of July or the 1st of October.]
 
      (5) Rules  made under  this section shall remain in force for not
 more than 3*[five years].
 
  
 65.
  
 Power to make exempting orders.
  
 
      65.  Power   to  make  exempting  orders.  (1)  Where  the  State
 Government is  satisfied that, owing to the nature of the work carried
 on or  to other  circumstances, it is unreasonable to require that the
 periods of  work of  any adult  workers in  any factory  or  class  or
 description of  factories should  be  fixed  beforehand,  it  may,  by
 written order, relax or modify the provisions of section 61 in respect
 of such  workers therein,  to such extent and in such manner as it may
 think fit,  and subject to such conditions as it may deem expedient to
 ensure control over periods of work.
 
      (2) The  State Government or, subject to the control of the State
 Government, the  Chief Inspector, may by written order exempt, on such
 conditions as  it or  he may  deem expedient,  any or all of the adult
 workers in  any factory  or group or class or description of factories
 from any or all of the provisions of sections 51, 52, 54 and 56 on the
 ground that  the exemption  is  required  to  enable  the  factory  or
 factories to deal with an exceptional press of work.
 
      4*[(3) Any  exemption granted  under  sub-section  (2)  shall  be
 subject to the following conditions, namely:--
 
           (i)  the total  number of hours of work in any day shall not
                exceed twelve;
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 27 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Cl. (iii)  renumbered as  cl. (iv) by s. 27, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 3.   Subs. by s. 27, ibid., for "three years" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 4.   Subs. by s. 28, ibid, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 70A
 
           (ii) the spreadover,  inclusive of intervals for rest, shall
                not exceed thirteen hours in any one day;
 
           (iii)the  total  number  of  hours  of  work  in  any  week,
                including overtime, shall not exceed sixty;
 
           (iv) no worker  shall be  allowed to work overtime, for more
                than seven  days at  a stretch  and the total number of
                hours of  overtime work in any quarter shall not exceed
                seventy-five.
 
      Explanation.--In this  sub-section "quarter" has the same meaning
 as in sub-section (4) of section 64.]
 
      1*   *  *  *       *
 
  
 66.
  
 Further restrictions on employment of women.
  
 
      66.  Further   restrictions  on  employment  of  women.  (1)  The
 provisions of  this Chapter  shall, in  their application  to women in
 factories, be  supplemented by  the  following  further  restrictions,
 namely:--
 
           (a)  no exemption  from the  provisions of section 54 may be
                granted in respect of any woman;
 
           (b)  no woman shall be 2*[required or allowed to work in any
                factory] except between the hours of 6 A.M. and 7 P.M.
 
                Provided that the State Government may, by notification
                in the  Official Gazette,  in respect of 2*[any factory
                or group  or class  or description  of factories,] vary
                the limits laid down in clause (b), but so that no such
                variation shall  authorize the  employment of any woman
                between the hours of 10 P.M. and 5 A.M.;
 
           3*[(c) there  shall be  no change  of shifts  except after a
                weekly holiday or any other holiday.]
 
      (2) The  State  Government  may  make  rules  providing  for  the
 exemption from  the restrictions  set out  in sub-section (1), to such
 extent and  subject to  such conditions  as it may prescribe, of women
 working in fish-curing or fish-canning factories, where the employment
 of women  beyond the  hours specified  in  the  said  restrictions  is
 necessary to prevent damage to, or deterioration in, any raw material.
 
      (3) The  rules made  under sub-section  (2) shall remain in force
 for not more than three years at a time.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Sub-section (4)  omitted by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 28 (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 29, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Ins. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 17.
 
 70B
 
  
 CHAP
  
 EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS
  
 
                              CHAPTER VII
 
                      EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS
 
  
 67.
  
 Prohibition of employment of young children.
  
 
      67. Prohibition of employment of young children. No child who has
 not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work
 in any factory.
 
  
 68.
  
 Non-adult workers to carry tokens.
  
 
      68. Non-adult  workers to carry tokens. A child who has completed
 his fourteenth  year or an adolescent shall not be required or allowed
 to work in any factory unless--
 
           (a)  a certificate  of fitness granted with reference to him
                under section  69 is  in the  custody of the manager of
                the factory, and
 
           (b)  such child  or adolescent carries while he is at work a
                token giving a reference to such certificate.
 
  
 69.
  
 Certificates of fitness.
  
 
      69. Certificates  of fitness.  (1) A certifying surgeon shall, on
 the application  of  any  young  person  or  his  parent  or  guardian
 accompanied by a document signed by the manager of a factory that such
 person will  be employed  therein if certified to be fit for work in a
 factory, or  on the application of the manager of the factory in which
 any young person wishes to work, examine such person and ascertain his
 fitness for work in a factory.
 
 71
 
      (2) The  certifying surgeon, after examination, may grant to such
 young person, in the prescribed form, or may renew--
 
           (a)  a certificate  of fitness  to work  in a  factory as  a
                child, if  he is  satisfied that  the young  person has
                completed his fourteenth year, that he has attained the
                prescribed physical  standards and  that he  is fit for
                such work;
 
           (b)  a certificate  of fitness  to work  in a  factory as an
                adult, if  he is  satisfied that  the young  person has
                completed his  fifteenth year,  and is  fit for  a full
                day's work in a factory:
 
      Provided  that   unless  the   certifying  surgeon  has  personal
 knowledge of  the place where the young person proposes to work and of
 the manufacturing  process in  which he will be employed, he shall not
 grant or  renew a  certificate under  this sub-section  until  he  has
 examined such place.
 
      (3) A certificate of fitness granted or renewed under sub-section
 (2)--
 
           (a)  shall be  valid only for a period of twelve months from
                the date thereof;
 
           (b)  may be  made subject  to conditions  in regard  to  the
                nature of  the work  in which  the young  person may be
                employed, or  requiring  re-examination  of  the  young
                person before  the  expiry  of  the  period  of  twelve
                months.
 
      (4) A  certifying surgeon shall revoke any certificate granted or
 renewed under sub-section (2) if in his opinion the holder of it is no
 longer fit to work in the capacity stated therein in a factory.
 
      (5) Where  a certifying  surgeon refuses  to  grant  or  renew  a
 certificate or  a certificate  of the  kind  requested  or  revokes  a
 certificate, he  shall, if  so requested  by any person who could have
 applied for  the certificate or the renewal thereof, state his reasons
 in writing for so doing.
 
      (6) Where  a certificate under this section with reference to any
 young person  is granted  or renewed subject to such conditions as are
 referred to  in clause  (b) of sub-section (3), the young person shall
 not be required or allowed to work in any factory except in accordance
 with those conditions.
 
      (7) Any fee payable for a certificate under this section shall be
 paid by  the occupier  and shall  not be  recoverable from  the  young
 person, his parents or guardian.
 
 72
 
  
 70.
  
 Effect of certificate of fitness granted to adolescent.
  
 
      70. Effect  of certificate  of fitness granted to adolescent. (1)
 An adolescent who has been granted a certificate of fitness to work in
 a factory  as an  adult under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section
 69, and  who while  at work  in  a  factory  carries  a  token  giving
 reference to  the certificate,  shall be deemed to be an adult for all
 the purposes of Chapters VI and VIII:
 
      1*        *   *  *      *
 
      1*[(1A)  No  female adolescent  or a  male adolescent who has not
 attained the  age of  seventeen years  but  who  has  been  granted  a
 certificate of  fitness to  work in  a factory  as an  adult, shall be
 required or allowed to work in any factory except between 6 A.M. and 7
 P.M:
 
      Provided that  the State  Government may,  by notification in the
 Official Gazette,  in respect  of any  factory or  group or  class  or
 description of factories,--
 
                          (i) vary  the limits  laid down  in this sub-
                     section so,  however, that  no such  section shall
                     authorise the  employment of any female adolescent
                     between 10 P.M. and 5 A.M.;
 
                          (ii) grant  exemption from  the provisions of
                     this sub-section  in  case  of  serious  emergency
                     where national interest is involved.]
 
      (2) An  adolescent who  has not  been granted  a  certificate  of
 fitness to  work in  a factory  as an adult under the aforesaid clause
 (b) shall,  notwithstanding his  age, be  deemed to be a child for all
 the purposes of this Act.
 
  
 71.
  
 Working hours for children.
  
 
      71. Working hours for children. (1) No child shall be employed or
 permitted to work, in any factory--
 
           (a)  for more than four and a half hours in any day;
 
           2*[(b) during the night.
 
      Explanation.--For the  purpose of  this sub-section "night" shall
 mean a period of at least twelve consecutive hours which shall include
 the interval between 10 P.M. and 6 A.M.]
 
      (2) The  period of  work of  all children  employed in  a factory
 shall be  limited to two shifts which shall not overlap or spread over
 more than  five hours  each; and  each child shall be employed in only
 one of the relays which shall not, except with the previous permission
 in writing  of the  Chief Inspector,  be changed  more frequently than
 once in a period of thirty days.
 
      (3) The  provisions of  section 52  shall  apply  also  to  child
 workers and  no exemption  from the  provisions of that section may be
 granted in respect of any child.
 
      (4) No  child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory
 on any day on which he has already been working in another factory.
 
      3*[(5)  No  female child  shall be required or allowed to work in
 any factory except between 8 A.M. and 7 P.M.]
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Omitted and ins.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  22 (w.e.f.  1.12.87).
 2.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954 s. 19.
 3.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 s. 23 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 73
 
  
 72.
  
 Notice of periods of work for children.
  
 
      72. Notice  of periods  of work  for children. (1) There shall be
 displayed and  correctly maintained in every factory in which children
 are employed,  in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2) of
 section 108  a notice of periods of work for children, showing clearly
 for every  day the  periods during  which children  may be required or
 allowed to work.
 
      (2) The  periods shown  in the notice required by sub-section (1)
 shall be  fixed beforehand in accordance with the method laid down for
 adult workers  in section  61, and shall be such that children working
 for those  periods would not be working in contravention of any of the
 provisions of section 71.
 
      (3) The  provisions of  sub-sections (8), (9) and (10) of section
 61 shall  apply also to the notice required by sub-section (1) of this
 section.
 
  
 73.
  
 Register of child workers.
  
 
      73. Register  of child  workers. (1) The manager of every factory
 in which  children are  employed shall  maintain a  register of  child
 workers, to  be available to the Inspector at all times during working
 hours or when any work is being carried on in a factory, showing-
 
           (a)  the name of each child worker in the factory,
 
           (b)  the nature of his work,
 
           (c)  the group, if any, in which he is included,
 
           (d)  where his  group works on shifts, the relay to which he
                is allotted, and
 
           (e)  the number  of his certificate of fitness granted under
                section 69.
 
      1*[(1A) No  child worker  shall be required or allowed to work in
 any factory unless his name and other particulars have been entered in
 the register of child workers.]
 
      (2) The  State Government  may prescribe the form of the register
 of child  workers, the  manner in which it shall be maintained and the
 period for which it shall be preserved.
 
  
 74.
  
 Hours of  work to correspond with notice under section 72 and registerunder
 section 73.
  
 
      74. Hours  of work to correspond with notice under section 72 and
 register under  section 73.  No child shall be employed in any factory
 otherwise than  in accordance  with the  notice of periods of work for
 children displayed  in the  factory and  the entries  made  beforehand
 against his name in the register of child workers of the factory.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 30 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 74
 
  
 75.
  
 Power to require medical examination.
  
 
      75. Power  to require  medical examination. Where an Inspector is
 of opinion--
 
           (a)  that  any   person  working  in  a  factory  without  a
                certificate of fitness is a young person, or
 
           (b)  that a  young  person  working  in  a  factory  with  a
                certificate of  fitness is no longer fit to work in the
                capacity stated therein,--
 
 he may  serve on  the manager  of the  factory a notice requiring that
 such person  or young person, as the case may be, shall be examined by
 a certifying  surgeon, and  such person  or young person shall not, if
 the Inspector  so directs,  be employed,  or permitted to work, in any
 factory until  he  has  been  so  examined  and  has  been  granted  a
 certificate of  fitness or a fresh certificate of fitness, as the case
 may be,  under section  69, or  has been  certified by  the certifying
 surgeon examining him not to be a young person.
 
  
 76.
  
 Power to make rules.
  
 
      76. Power to make rules. The State Government may make rules-
 
           (a)  prescribing the  forms of certificates of fitness to be
                granted under  section 69,  providing for  the grant of
                duplicates  in  the  event  of  loss  of  the  original
                certificates, and  fixing the fees which may be charged
                for such  certificates and  renewals thereof  and  such
                duplicates;
 
           (b)  prescribing the  physical standards  to be  attained by
                children and adolescents working in factories;
 
           (c)  regulating the  procedure of  certifying surgeons under
                this Chapter;
 
           (d)  specifying other  duties which  certifying surgeons may
                be  required   to  perform   in  connection   with  the
                employment of  young persons  factories, and fixing the
                fees which  may be  charged for  such  duties  and  the
                persons by whom they shall be payable.
 
  
 77.
  
 Certain other provisions of law not barred.
  
 
      77. Certain other provisions of law not barred. The provisions of
 this Chapter  shall be  in addition  to, and not in derogation of, the
 provisions of the Employment of Children Act, 1938. (26 of 1938).
 
  
 CHAP
  
 ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES
  
 
                            1*[CHAPTER VIII
 
                        ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES
 
  
 78.
  
 Application of Chapter.
  
 
      78. Application  of Chapter.  (1) The  provisions of this Chapter
 shall not  operate to the prejudice of any right to which a worker may
 be entitled under any
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 20, for the former Ch. VIII.
 
 75
 
 other law  or under  the terms  of any  award, 1*[agreement (including
 settlement)] or contract of service:
 
      2*[Provided that  if such award, agreement (including settlement)
 or contract  of service  provides for a longer annual leave with wages
 than provided  in this Chapter, the quantum of leave, which the worker
 shall be  entitled  to,  shall  be  in  accordance  with  such  award,
 agreement or  contract of  service, but  in relation  to  matters  not
 provided for  in such  award, agreement  or  contract  of  service  or
 matters which are provided for less favourably therein, the provisions
 of sections 79 to 82, so far as may be, shall apply.]
 
      (2) The  provisions of  this Chapter  shall not  apply to workers
 3*[in any  factory] of any railway administered by the Government, who
 are governed by leave rules approved by the Central Government.
 
  
 79.
  
 Annual leave with wages.
  
 
      79. Annual  leave with wages. (1) Every worker who has worked for
 a period of 240 days or more in a factory during a calendar year shall
 be allowed during the subsequent calendar year, leave with wages for a
 number of days calculated at the rate of--
 
           (i)  if an  adult, one  day for  every twenty  days of  work
                performed by him during the previous calendar year;
 
           (ii) if a  child, one  day for  every fifteen  days of  work
                performed by him during the previous calendar year.
 
      Explanation 1.--For the purpose of this sub-section-
 
           (a)  any days  of lay  off, by  agreement or  contract or as
                permissible under the standing orders;
 
           (b)  in the case of a female worker, maternity leave for any
                number of days not exceeding twelve weeks; and
 
           (c)  the leave earned in the year prior to that in which the
                leave is enjoyed;
 
 shall be deemed to be days on which the worker has worked in a factory
 for the  purpose of computation of the period of 240 days or more, but
 he shall not earn leave for these days.
 
      Explanation 2.--The leave admissible under this sub-section shall
 be exclusive of all holidays whether occurring during or at either end
 of the period of leave.
 --------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 31, for "agreement" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 31, ibid., for the proviso (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Subs. by s. 31, ibid., for "in any workshop" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 76
 
      (2) A  worker whose service commences otherwise than on the first
 day of  January shall be entitled to leave with wages at the rate laid
 down in  clause (i) or, as the case may be, clause (ii) of sub-section
 (1) if he has worked for two-thirds of the total number of days in the
 remainder of the calendar year.
 
      1*[(3) If  a worker  is discharged  or dismissed  from service or
 quits his  employment or  is superannuated  or dies  while in service,
 during the  course of the calendar year, he or his heir or nominee, as
 the case  may be, shall be entitled to wages in lieu of the quantum of
 leave to  which he  was entitled  immediately  before  his  discharge,
 dismissal, quitting  of employment, superannuation or death calculated
 at the  rates specified  in sub-section (1), even if he had not worked
 for the  entire period specified in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)
 making him  eligible to avail of such leave, and such payment shall be
 made--
 
           (i)  where the  worker is  discharged or  dismissed or quits
                employment, before the expiry of the second working day
                from the date of such discharge, dismissal or quitting;
                and
 
           (ii) where the  worker is  superannuated or  dies  while  in
                service, before  the expiry of two months from the date
                of such superannuation or death.]
 
      (4) In calculating leave under this section, fraction of leave of
 half a  day or  more shall  be treated  as one  full day's  leave, and
 fraction of less than half a day shall be omitted.
 
      (5) If  a worker does not in any one calendar year take the whole
 of the  leave allowed to him under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2),
 as the  case may  be, any leave not taken by him shall be added to the
 leave to be allowed to him in the succeeding calendar year:
 
      Provided that  the total  number of  days of  leave that  may  be
 carried forward  to a  succeeding year  shall not exceed thirty in the
 case of an adult or forty in the case of a child:
 
      Provided further  that a  worker, who  has applied for leave with
 wages but  has not been given such leave in accordance with any scheme
 laid down in sub-sections (8) and (9) 2*[or in contravention of
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 32, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 26-
      10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 32, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 
 77
 
 sub-section (10)]  shall be  entitled to  carry forward  the  1*[leave
 refused] without any limit.
 
      (6) A worker may at any time apply in writing to the manager of a
 factory not  less than fifteen days before the date on which he wishes
 his leave  to begin,  to take  all the  leave or  any portion  thereof
 allowable to him during the calendar year:
 
      Provided that  the application shall be made not less than thirty
 days before the date on which the worker wishes his leave to begin, if
 he is employed in a public utility service as defined in clause (n) of
 section 2 of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947: (14 of 1947.)
 
      Provided further  that the  number of times in which leave may be
 taken during any year shall not exceed three.
 
      (7) If  a worker  wants to  avail himself of the leave with wages
 due to  him to  cover a  period of  illness, he  shall be granted such
 leave even  if the  application for  leave is not made within the time
 specified in  sub-section (6);  and in such a case wages as admissible
 under section  81 shall be paid not later than fifteen days, or in the
 case of  a public  utility service not later than thirty days from the
 date of the application for leave.
 
      (8) For  the purpose  of ensuring  the continuity  of  work,  the
 occupier or  manager of  the factory,  in  agreement  with  the  Works
 Committee of the factory constituted under section 3 of the Industrial
 Disputes Act,  1947 (14  of 1947),  or a similar Committee constituted
 under any  other Act  or if  there is  no such  Works Committee  or  a
 similar  Committee   in   the   factory,   in   agreement   with   the
 representatives of  the  workers  therein  chosen  in  the  prescribed
 manner, may lodge with the Chief Inspector a scheme in writing whereby
 the grant of leave allowable under this section may be regulated.
 
      (9) A  scheme lodged  under sub-section (8) shall be displayed at
 some conspicuous  and convenient places in the factory and shall be in
 force for  a period  of twelve  months from the date on which it comes
 into force, and may thereafter be renewed with or without modification
 for a  further period  of twelve  months at  a time, by the manager in
 agreement with  the Works  Committee or a similar Committee, or as the
 case may  be, in  agreement with the representatives of the workers as
 specified in sub-section (8), and a notice of renewal shall be sent to
 the Chief Inspector before it is renewed.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 32, for "unavailed leave" (w.e.f. 26-
      10-1976).
 
 78
 
      (10) An  application for  leave which  does  not  contravene  the
 provisions of  sub-section (6) shall not be refused, unless refusal is
 in accordance  with the  scheme for  the time being in operation under
 sub-sections (8) and (9).
 
      (11) If the employment of a worker who is entitled to leave under
 sub-section (1)  or sub-section (2), as the case may be, is terminated
 by the  occupier before  he has  taken the entire leave to which he is
 entitled, or  if having  applied for  and having not been granted such
 leave, the  worker quits his employment before he has taken the leave,
 the occupier  of the  factory shall  pay him  the amount payable under
 section 80  in respect  of the leave not taken, and such payment shall
 be made,  where the  employment of  the worker  is terminated  by  the
 occupier, before  the expiry  of the  second working  day  after  such
 termination, and where a worker who quits his employment, on or before
 the next pay day.
 
      (12) The  unavailed leave  of a  worker shall  not be  taken into
 consideration in  computing the  period of  any notice  required to be
 given before discharge or dismissal.
 
  
 80.
  
 Wages during leave period.
  
 
      80. Wages  during leave  period. (1) For the leave allowed to him
 under  1*[section   78 or  section  79,  as the case may be,] a worker
 2*[shall be entitled to wages] at a rate equal to the daily average of
 his total  full time  earnings for  the days  on which  3*[he actually
 worked] during the month immediately preceding his leave, exclusive of
 any overtime  and bonus  but inclusive  of dearness  allowance and the
 cash equivalent  of the  advantage accruing  through the  concessional
 sale to the worker of foodgrains and other articles.
 
      3*[Provided that  in the  case of  a worker who has not worked on
 any day  during the calendar month immediately preceding his leave, he
 shall be  paid at  a rate equal to the daily average of his total full
 time earnings for the days on which he actually worked during the last
 calendar month  preceding his  leave, in  which  he  actually  worked,
 exclusive  of  any  overtime  and  bonus  but  inclusive  of  dearness
 allowance and  the cash  equivalent of  the advantage accruing through
 the  concessional   sale  to  the  workers  of  foodgrains  and  other
 articles.]
 
      (2) The  cash equivalent  of the  advantage accruing  through the
 concessional sale to the worker of foodgrains and other articles shall
 be computed as often as may be prescribed, on the basis of the maximum
 quantity of  foodgrains and  other articles  admissible to  a standard
 family.
 
      Explanation 1.--"Standard  family" means a family consisting of a
 worker, his  or her  spouse and two children below the age of fourteen
 years requiring in all three adult consumption units.
 
      Explanation 2.--"Adult  consumption unit"  means the  consumption
 unit of  a male  above the  age of fourteen years; and the consumption
 unit of a female above the age of fourteen years and that
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 33, for "section 79" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Subs.  & Ins.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  24 (w.e.f.  1-12-87).
 3.   Subs. by Act 94 of 19 s. 33, for "he worked" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 79
 
 of a  child below the age of fourteen years shall be calculated at the
 rates of .8 and .6 respectively of one adult consumption unit.
 
      (3) The State Government may make rules prescribing--
 
           (a)  the  manner   in  which  the  cash  equivalent  of  the
                advantage accruing  through the  concessional sale to a
                worker  of  foodgrains  and  other  articles  shall  be
                computed; and
 
           (b)  the registers that shall be maintained in a factory for
                the purpose  of securing compliance with the provisions
                of this section.
 
  
 81.
  
 Payment in advance in certain cases.
  
 
      81. Payment  in advance  in certain  cases. A worker who has been
 allowed leave  for not  less than  four days, in the case of an adult,
 and five  days, in the case of a child shall, before his leave begins,
 be paid the wages due for the period of the leave allowed.
 
  
 82.
  
 Mode of recovery of unpaid wages.
  
 
      82. Mode of recovery of unpaid wages. Any sum required to be paid
 by an  employer, under  this Chapter  but not  paid by  him  shall  be
 recoverable as  delayed wages  under the  provisions of the Payment of
 Wages Act 1936 (4 of 1936),
 
  
 83.
  
 Power to make rules.
  
 
      83. Power  to make  rules. The  State Government  may make  rules
 directing managers  of factories  to keep  registers  containing  such
 particulars as  may be  prescribed and  requiring the  registers to be
 made available for examination by Inspectors.
 
  
 84.
  
 Power to exempt factories.
  
 
      84. Power  to exempt  factories. Where  the State  Government  is
 satisfied that  the leave  rules applicable  to workers  in a  factory
 provide benefits  which in  its opinion  are not  less favourable than
 those for which this Chapter makes provision it may, by written order,
 exempt the  factory from  all or any of the provisions of this Chapter
 subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order.
 
      1*[Explanation.--For the  purposes of  this section,  in deciding
 whether the  benefits which  are provided  for by  any leave rules are
 less favourable  than those for which this Chapter makes provision, or
 not, the totality of the benefits shall be taken into account.]
 
  
 CHAP
  
 SPECIAL PROVISIONS
  
 
                               CHAPTER IX
 
                           SPECIAL PROVISIONS
 
  
 85.
  
 Power to apply the Act to certain premises.
  
 
      85. Power  to apply  the Act  to certain  premises. (1) The State
 Government may,  by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that
 all or  any of  the provisions  of this  Act shall  apply to any place
 wherein  a manufacturing process is carried on with
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 34 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 80
 
 or  without  the  aid  of  power  or  is  so  ordinarily  carried  on,
 notwithstanding that--
 
           (i)  the number  of persons  employed therein  is less  than
                ten, if  working with  the aid  of power  and less than
                twenty if working without the aid of power, or
 
           (ii) the persons  working therein  are not  employed by  the
                owner thereof  but are  working with the permission of,
                or under agreement with, such owner:
 
      Provided that  the manufacturing  process is not being carried on
 by the owner only with the aid of his family.
 
      (2) After  a place  is so  declared, it  shall be  deemed to be a
 factory for the purposes of this Act, and the owner shall be deemed to
 be the occupier, and any person working therein, a worker.
 
      Explanation.--For the  purposes of  this section,  "owner"  shall
 include a lessee or mortgagee with possession of the premises.
 
  
 86.
  
 Power to exempt public institutions.
  
 
      86. Power to exempt public institutions. The State Government may
 exempt, subject  to such  conditions as it may consider necessary, any
 workshop or  workplace where a manufacturing process is carried on and
 which is  attached to a public institution maintained for the purposes
 of education,  1*[training, research]  or reformation, from all or any
 of the provisions of this Act:
 
      Provided that  no exemption  shall be granted from the provisions
 relating to  hours of work and holidays, unless the persons having the
 control of  the institution  submit, for  the approval  of  the  State
 Government, a  scheme for  the regulation  of the hours of employment,
 intervals for  meals, and  holidays of  the  persons  employed  in  or
 attending the  institution or  who are inmates of the institution, and
 the State  Government is  satisfied that  the provisions of the scheme
 are not less favourable than the corresponding provisions of this Act.
 
  
 87.
  
 Dangerous operations.
  
 
      87. Dangerous  operations.  Where  the  State  Government  is  of
 opinion that  any 2*[manufacturing process or operation] carried on is
 a factory  exposes any  persons employed  in it  to a  serious risk of
 bodily injury, poisoning or
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by  Act 94  of 1976,  s. 35,  for "training" (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 2.   Subs. by s. 36, ibid., for "operation" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 81
 
 disease, it  may make  rules applicable  to any  factory or  class  or
 description of  factories  in  which  the 1*[manufacturing process  or
 operation]  is carried on--
 
           (a)  specifying the  1*[manufacturing process  or operation]
                and declaring it to be dangerous;
 
           (b)  prohibiting or  restricting the  employment  of  women,
                adolescents or children in the 1*[manufacturing process
                or operation];
 
           (c)  providing for  the periodical  medical  examination  of
                persons employed,  or seeking  to be  employed, in  the
                1*[manufacturing process or operation], and prohibiting
                the employment of persons not certified as fit for such
                employment 2*[and requiring the payment by the occupier
                of the factory of fees for such medical examination];
 
           (d)  providing for the protection of all persons employed in
                the 1*[manufacturing  process or  operation] or  in the
                vicinity of the places where it is carried on;
 
           (e)  prohibiting, restricting  or controlling the use of any
                specified materials or processes in connection with the
                1*[manufacturing process or operation];
 
           2*[(f)  requiring   the  provision   of  additional  welfare
                amenities and  sanitary facilities  and the  supply  of
                protective equipment  and clothing, and laying down the
                standards  thereof,  having  regard  to  the  dangerous
                nature of the manufacturing process or operation;
 
           3*  *  *  *            *
 
  
 87A.
  
 Power to prohibit employment on account of serious hazard.
  
 
      4*[87A. Power  to  prohibit  employment  on  account  of  serious
 hazard. (1)  Where it  appears to  the Inspector  that conditions in a
 factory or  part thereof are such the they may cause serious hazard by
 way of  injury or  death to  the persons  employed therein  or to  the
 general public  in the  vicinity, he  may, by  order in writing to the
 occupier of  the factory, state the particulars in respect of which he
 considers the  factory or part thereof to be the cause of such serious
 hazard and  prohibit such  occupier from  employing any  person in the
 factory or  any part  thereof other than the minimum number of persons
 necessary to attend to the minimum tasks till the hazard is removed.
 
      (2) Any order issued by the Inspector under sub-section (1) shall
 have effect  for a  period of  three days  until extended by the Chief
 Inspector by a subsequent order.
 
      (3) Any  person aggrieved by an order of the Inspector under sub-
 section (1), and the Chief Inspector under sub-section (2), shall have
 the right to appeal to the High Court.
 
      (4) Any  person whose  employment has  been affected  by an order
 issued under  sub-section (1),  shall be  entitled to  wages and other
 benefits and  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  occupier  to  provide
 alternative employment  to him  wherever possible  and in  the  manner
 prescribed.
 
      (5) The  provisions of sub-section (4) shall be without prejudice
 to  the  rights  of  the  parties  under  the Industrial Disputes Act,
 1947 (14 of 1947).
 
  
 88.
  
 Notice of certain accidents.
  
 
      88. Notice  of certain accidents. 5*[(1)] Where in any factory an
 accident occurs  which causes death, or which causes any bodily injury
 by reason of which the
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 36, "operation" (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 36, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Omitted by Act 20 of 1987, s.  25 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 4.   Ins.  by s.  26, ibid.  (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 5.   S. 88  renumbered as  sub-section (1)  of that  section by   Act
      94 of 1976. s. 37, (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 82
 
 person injured  is prevented  from working for a period of forty-eight
 hours or  more immediately following the accident, or which is of such
 nature as may be prescribed in this behalf, the manager of the factory
 shall send  notice thereof  to such  authorities, and in such form and
 within such time, as may be prescribed.
 
      1*[(2) Where  a notice  given under sub-section (1) relates to an
 accident causing death, the authority to whom the notice is sent shall
 make an inquiry into the occurrence within one month of the receipt of
 the notice  or, if  such authority  is not  the Inspector,  cause  the
 Inspector to make an inquiry within the said period.
 
      (3) The  State Government  may  make  rules  for  regulating  the
 procedure at inquiries under this section.]
 
  
 88A.
  
 Notice of certain dangerous occurrences.
  
 
      2*[88A. Notice  of certain  dangerous  occurrences.  Where  in  a
 factory any  dangerous occurrence  of such nature as may be prescribed
 occurs, whether  causing any  bodily injury  or disability or not, the
 manager of  the factory shall send notice thereof to such authorities,
 and in such form and within such time, as may be prescribed.]
 
  
 89.
  
 Notice of certain diseases.
  
 
      89. Notice of certain diseases. (1) Where any worker in a factory
 contracts any disease specified in 3*[the third Schedule], the manager
 of the  factory shall  send notice thereof to such authorities, and in
 such form and within such time, as may be prescribed.
 
      (2) If any medical practitioner attends on a person who is or has
 been employed  in a  factory, and who is or is believed by the medical
 practitioner to  be, suffering  from any  disease specified  in 3*[the
 third Schedule],  the medical  practitioner shall without delay send a
 report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector stating--
 
           (a)  the name and full postal address of the patient,
 
           (b)  the disease  from which  he believes  the patient to be
                suffering, and
 
           (c)  the name  and address  of  the  factory  in  which  the
                patient is, or was last, employed.
 
      (3) Where  the report  under sub-seciton  (2) is confirmed to the
 satisfaction  of   the  Chief  Inspector,  by  the  certificate  of  a
 certifying surgeon  or otherwise,  that the person is suffering from a
 disease specified  in 3*[the  Third Schedule],  he shall  pay  to  the
 medical practitioner
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 37 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 2.   Ins. by s. 38, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 83
 
 such fee  as  may  be  prescribed,  and  the  fee  so  paid  shall  be
 recoverable as  an arrear  of land-revenue  from the  occupier of  the
 factory in which the person contracted the disease.
 
      (4)  If  any  medical  practitioner  fails  to  comply  with  the
 provisions of  sub-section (2), he shall be punishable with fine which
 may extend to 1*[one thousand-rupees].
 
      2*[(5)  The  Central  Government  may,  by  notification  in  the
 Official Gazette,  add to  or alter  the Third  Schedule and  any such
 addition or  alteration shall  have effect  as if  it had been made by
 this Act.]
 
  
 90.
  
 Power to direct enquiry into cases of accident or disease.
  
 
      90. Power  to direct  enquiry into  cases of accident or disease.
 (1) The  State Government  may, if it considers it expedient so to do,
 appoint a  competent person to inquire into the causes of any accident
 occurring in  a factory  or into any case where a disease specified in
 2*[the Third  Schedule] has  been,  or  is  suspected  to  have  been,
 contracted in  a factory,  and may  also appoint  one or  more persons
 possessing legal  or special  knowledge to  act as  assessors in  such
 inquiry.
 
      (2) The  person appointed  to hold  an inquiry under this section
 shall have  all the  powers of  a Civil  Court under the Code of Civil
 Procedure, 1908  (5 of  1908),  for  the  purposes  of  enforcing  the
 attendance of witnesses and compelling the production of documents and
 material objects,  and may  also, so  far as  may be necessary for the
 purposes of  the inquiry,  exercise any  of the powers of an Inspector
 under this  Act; and  every person  required by  the person making the
 inquiry to furnish any information shall be deemed to be legally bound
 so to  do within  the meaning of section 176 of the Indian Penal  Code
 (45 of 1860).
 
      (3) The person holding an inquiry under this section shall make a
 report to  the State Government stating the causes of the accident, or
 as the  case may  be, disease,  and any  attendant circumstances,  and
 adding any observations which he or any of the assessors may think fit
 to make.
 
      (4) The  State Government  may, if  it thinks  fit, cause  to  be
 published  any   report  made  under  this  section  or  any  extracts
 therefrom.
 
      (5) The  State Government  may  make  rules  for  regulating  the
 procedure at inquiries under this section.
 
  
 91.
  
 Power to take samples.
  
 
      91. Power  to take  samples. (1)  An Inspector  may at  any  time
 during the  normal working  hours of  a factory,  after informing  the
 occupier or  manager of the factory or other person for the time being
 purporting to  be in  charge  of  the  factory,  take  in  the  manner
 hereinafter provided  a sufficient  sample of  any substance  used  or
 intended to be used in the factory, such use being--
 
           (a)  in the  belief of the Inspector in contravention of any
                of
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. and added by Act 20 of 1987, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 2.   Subs. by s. 28, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 84
 
                the  provisions   of  this   Act  or   the  rules  made
                thereunder, or
 
           (b)  in the  opinion of the Inspector likely to cause bodily
                injury to,  or injury  to the health or, workers in the
                factory.
 
      (2) Where  the Inspector takes a sample under sub-section (1), he
 shall, in  the presence  of the person informed under that sub-section
 unless such  person wilfully  absents himself,  divide the sample into
 three portions  and effectively seal and suitably mark them, and shall
 permit such person to add his own seal and mark thereto.
 
      (3) The  person informed  as aforesaid shall, if the Inspector so
 requires, provide the appliances for dividing, sealing and marking the
 sample taken under this section.
 
      (4) The Inspector shall--
 
           (a)  forthwith give  one portion of the sample to the person
                informed under sub-section (1);
 
           (b)  forthwith send  the  second  portion  to  a  Government
                Analyst for analysis and report thereon;
 
           (c)  retain the  third portion  for production  to the Court
                before which  proceedings, if  any, are  instituted  in
                respect of the substance.
 
      (5) Any  document purporting to be a report under the hand of any
 Government Analyst  upon any  substance submitted  to him for analysis
 and report  under this  section,  may  be  used  as  evidence  in  any
 proceedings instituted in respect of the substance.
 
  
 91A.
  
 Safety and occupational health surveys.
  
 
      1*[91A. Safety  and occupational  health surveys.  (1) The  Chief
 Inspector, or  the Director  General of  Factory  Advice  Service  and
 Labour Institutes,  or the Director General of Health Services, to the
 Government of  India, or  such other  officer as  may be authorised in
 this behalf  by the  State Government  or the  Chief Inspector  or the
 Director General  of Factory  Advice Service  and Labour Institutes or
 the Director  General of  Health Services  may, at any time during the
 normal working hours of a factory, or at any other time as is found by
 him to be necessary, after giving notice in writing to the occupier or
 manager of  the factory  or any  other person  who for  the time being
 purports to  be  in  charge  of  the  factory,  undertake  safety  and
 occupational health surveys and such occupier or
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 39 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 85
 
 manager or  other person  shall afford all facilities for such survey,
 including facilities  for the  examination and  testing of  plant  and
 machinery and  collection of  samples and  other data  relevant to the
 survey.
 
      (2) For the purpose of facilitating surveys under sub-section (1)
 every worker  shall, if  so required  by  the  person  conducting  the
 survey, present  himself to undergo such medical examination as may be
 considered necessary by such person and furnish all information in his
 possession and relevant to the survey.
 
      (3) Any time spent by a worker for undergoing medical examination
 or furnishing information under sub-section (2) shall, for the purpose
 of calculating  wages and  extra wages for overtime work, be deemed to
 be time during which such worker worked in the factory.]
 
      1*[Explanation.--For the purposes of this section, the report, if
 any, submitted  to the  State Government  by the person conducting the
 survey under  sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be a report submitted
 by an Inspector under this Act.
 
  
 CHAP
  
 PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
  
 
                               CHAPTER X
 
                        PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
 
  
 92.
  
 General penalty for offences.
  
 
      92. General  penalty for offences. Save as is otherwise expressly
 provided in  this Act  and subject to the provisions of section 93, if
 in, or in respect of, any factory there is any contravention of any of
 the provisions  of this  Act or of any rules made thereunder or of any
 order in  writing given  thereunder, the  occupier and  manager of the
 factory shall  each be  guilty  of  an  offence  and  punishable  with
 imprisonment for a term which may extend to 2*[two years] or with fine
 which may  extend to  2*[one lakh  rupees] or  with both,  and if  the
 contravention is continued after conviction, with a further fine which
 may extend  to 2*[one  thousand rupees]  for each  day  on  which  the
 contravention is so continued:
 
      3*[Provided that  where contravention of any of the provisions of
 Chapter IV  or any  rule made thereunder section 87 has resulted in an
 accident causing death or serious bodily injury, the fine shall not be
 less than  2*[twenty five thousand] in the case of an accident causing
 death, and 2*[five thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing
 serious bodily injury.
 
      Explanation.--In this  section and  in section 94 "serious bodily
 injury" means an injury which involves, or in all probability will
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 29 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987)
 2.   Subs. by s. 30, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 3.   Ins.  by Act 94 of 1976 s.  40, (w.e.f.  26-10-1976).
 
 
 
 86
 
 involve, the permanent loss of the use of, or permanent injury to, any
 limb or  the permanent loss of, or injury to, sight or hearing, or the
 fracture of  any bone,  but shall not include, the fracture of bone or
 joint (not  being fracture  of more  than one  bone or  joint) of  any
 phalanges of the hand or foot.]
 
  
 93.
  
 Liability of owner of premises in certain circumstances.
  
 
      1*[93. Liability  of owner  of premises in certain circumstances.
 (1) Where  in any  premises separate buildings are leased to different
 occupiers for  use as  separate factories,  the owner  of the premises
 shall be  responsible for  the provision  and  maintenance  of  common
 facilities and  services, such  as  approach  roads,  drainage,  water
 supply, lighting and sanitation.
 
      (2) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the
 State Government,  power to  issue orders to the owner of the premises
 in respect of the carrying out of the provisions of sub-section (1).
 
      (3) Where  in any premises, independent or self-contained, floors
 or flats  are leased  to  different  occupiers  for  use  as  separate
 factories, the owner of the premises shall be liable as if he were the
 occupier or  manager of  a  factory,  for  any  contravention  of  the
 provisions of this Act in respect of--
 
           (i)  latrines, urinals  and washing  facilities in so far as
                the maintenance of the common supply of water for these
                purposes is concerned;
 
           (ii) fencing of  machinery and  plant belonging to the owner
                and not specifically entrusted to the custody or use of
                an occupier;
 
           (iii)safe means  of  access  to  the  floors  or  flats  and
                maintenance and  cleanliness of  stair cases and common
                passages;
 
           (iv) precautions in case of fire;
 
           (v)  maintenance of hoists and lifts; and
 
           (vi) maintenance of  any other common facilities provided in
                the premises.
 
      (4) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the
 State Government,  power to  issue orders to the owner of the premises
 in respect of the carrying out the provisions of sub-section (3).
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 25 of 1954, s. 21.
 
 87
 
      (5) The  provisions of  sub-section (3) relating to the liability
 of the  owner shall apply where in any premises independent rooms with
 common  latrines,   urinals  and  washing  facilities  are  leased  to
 different occupiers for use as separate factories:
 
      Provided that  the owner  shall be responsible also for complying
 with the  requirements relating  to the  provision and  maintenance of
 latrines, urinals and washing facilities.
 
      (6) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the
 State Government,  the power  to issue  orders to  the  owner  of  the
 premises referred to in sub-section (5) in respect of the carrying out
 of the provisions of section 46 or section 48.
 
      (7) Where in any premises portions of a room or a shed are leased
 to different occupiers for use as separate factories, the owner of the
 premises shall be liable for any contravention of the provisions of-
 
           (i)  Chapter III, except sections 14 and 15;
 
           (ii) Chapter IV, except sections 22, 23, 27, 34, 35 and 36:
 
                Provided that  in respect of the provisions of sections
                21, 24 and 32 and owner's liability shall be only in so
                far as  such provisions  relate  to  things  under  his
                control:
 
                Provided further that the occupier shall be responsible
                for complying  with the  provisions of  Chapter  IV  in
                respect of plant and machinery belonging to or supplied
                by him;
 
           (iii)section 42.
 
      (8) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the
 State Government,  power to  issue orders to the owner of the premises
 in respect of the carrying out the provisions of sub-section (7).
 
      (9) In  respect of  sub-sections (5) and (7), while computing for
 the purposes  of any of the provisions of this Act the total number of
 workers employed,  the whole  of the  premises shall be deemed to be a
 single factory.]
 
  
 94.
  
 Enhanced penalty after previous conviction.
  
 
      94. Enhanced  penalty after  previous conviction.  1*[(1)] If any
 person who  has been convicted of any offence punishable under section
 92 is again guilty of an offence involving a contravention of the same
 provision, he  shall be  punishable on  a subsequent  conviction  with
 imprisonment for a term which may
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   S. 94  renumbered as sub-section (1) of that section by Act 94 of
      1976, s. 41 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 
 88
 
 extend to  1*[three years]  or with  fine 2*[which  shall not  be less
 than] 1*[ten  thousand rupees]  but which  may extend  to 1*[two  lakh
 rupees] or with both:
 
      3*[Provided that  the court  may, for  any adequate  and  special
 reasons to  be mentioned  in the  judgment, impose a fine of less than
 1*[ten thousand rupees].
 
      Provided  further   that  where   contravention  of  any  of  the
 provisions of  Chapter IV or any rule made thereunder or under section
 87 has resulted in an accident causing death or serious bodily injury,
 the fine shall not be less than 1*[thirty five thousand rupees] in the
 case of  an accident  causing death and 1*[ten thousand rupees] in the
 case of an accident causing serious bodily injury.]
 
      4*[(2)] For  the purposes of sub-section (1), no cognizance shall
 be taken  of any  conviction made  more  than  two  years  before  the
 commission of  the offence  for which the person is subsequently being
 convicted.]
 
  
 95.
  
 Penalty for obstructing Inspector.
  
 
      95. Penalty for obstructing Inspector. Whoever wilfully obstructs
 an Inspector in the exercise of any power conferred on him by or under
 this Act,  or fails to produce on demand by an Inspector any registers
 or other  documents in his custody kept in pursuance of this Act or of
 any rules  made thereunder,  or conceals  or prevents  any worker in a
 factory from  appearing before,  or being  examined by,  an Inspector,
 shall be  punishable with  imprisonment for a term which may extend to
 5*[six months]  or with  fine which  may  extend  to  5*[ten  thousand
 rupees] or with both.
 
  
 96.
  
 Penalty for  wrongfully disclosing  results of  analysis under section91.
  
 
      96. Penalty  for wrongfully  disclosing results of analysis under
 section 91.  Whoever, except  in so far as it may be necessary for the
 purposes of  a prosecution  for any offence punishable under this Act,
 publishes or  discloses to  any person the results of an analysis made
 under section  91, shall  be punishable  with imprisonment  for a term
 which may  extend to  6*[six months]  or with fine which may extend to
 6*[ten thousand rupees] or with both.
 
  
 96A.
  
 Penalty for  contravention of  the provisions of sections 41B, 41C and41H.
  
 
      7*[96A. Penalty  for contravention  of the provisions of sections
 41B, 41C  and 41H. (1) Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any
 of the  provisions of  sections 41B,  41C or  41H or  the  rules  made
 thereunder, shall,  in respect  of such  failure or  contravention, be
 punishable with  imprisonment for  a term  which may  extend to  seven
 years and  with fine  which may extend to two lakh rupees, and in case
 the failure or contravention continues, with additional fine which may
 extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure
 or contravention  continues after  the conviction  for the  first such
 failure or contravention.
 
      (2) If  the failure  or contravention  referred to in sub-section
 (1)  continues  beyond  a  period  of  one  year  after  the  date  of
 conviction, the  offender shall  be punishable with imprisonment for a
 term which may extend to ten years.
 
  
 97.
  
 Offences by workers.
  
 
      97. Offences by workers. (1) Subject to the provisions of section
 111, if  any worker employed in a factory contravenes any provision of
 this Act  or any rules or orders made thereunder, imposing any duty or
 liability on  workers, he  shall be  punishable with  fine  which  may
 extend to 8*[five hundred rupees].
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  31 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 2.   Subs. by  Act 94 of 1976, s. 41, for certain words (w.e.f. 26-10-
      1976).
 3.   Subs. by s. 41, ibid., for the proviso (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 4.   Ins. by s. 41, ibid.(w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 5.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 s. 32, (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 6.   Subs. by s. 33, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 7.   Ins. by s. 34, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 8.   Subs. s. 35, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 88A
 
      (2) Where  a worker  is convicted  of an offence punishable under
 sub-section (1),  the occupier  or manager of the factory shall not be
 deemed to  be guilty  of an  offence in respect of that contravention,
 unless it is proved that he failed to take all reasonable measures for
 its prevention.
 
  
 98.
  
 Penalty for using false certificate of fitness.
  
 
      98. Penalty  for using  false  certificate  of  fitness.  Whoever
 knowingly uses or attempts to use, as a certificate of fitness granted
 to himself  under section  70, a certificate granted to another person
 under that  section, or  who,  having  procured  such  a  certificate,
 knowingly allows it to be used, or an attempt to use it to be made, by
 another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which
 may extend  to 1*[two  month] or  with fine which may extend to 1*[one
 thousand rupees] or with both.
 
  
 99.
  
 Penalty for permitting double employment of child.
  
 
      99. Penalty for permitting double employment of child. If a child
 works in  a factory on any day on which he has already been working in
 another factory,  the parent  or guardian  of the  child or the person
 having custody  of or control over him or obtaining any direct benefit
 from his  wages, shall  be punishable  with fine  which may  extend to
 2*[one thousand  rupees] unless it appears to the Court that the child
 so worked  without the  consent or connivance of such parent, guardian
 or person.
 
      3*   *  *  *      *
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Subs. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 36 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 2.   Subs. by. s. 37, ibid (w.e.f. 1-2-1987)
 3.   Omitted by s. 38, ibid (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 88B
 
  
 101.
  
 Exemption of occupier or manager from liability in certain cases.
  
 
      101. Exemption  of occupier  or manager from liability in certain
 cases. Where  the occupier  or manager of a factory is charged with an
 offence  punishable  under  this  Act,  he  shall  be  entitled,  upon
 complaint duly  made by  him and  on giving to the prosecutor not less
 than three clear days' notice in writing of his intention so to do, to
 have any  other person  whom he charges as the actual offender brought
 before the Court at the time appointed for hearing the charge; and if,
 after the  commission of  the offence has been proved, the occupier or
 manager of the factory, as the case may be, proves to the satisfaction
 of the Court--
 
           (a)  that he has used due diligence to enforce the execution
                of this Act, and
 
           (b)  that the  said other  person committed  the offence  in
                question without his knowledge, consent or connivance,-
                -
 
 that other  person shall  be convicted  of the  offence and  shall  be
 liable to the like punishment as if he were the occupier or manager of
 the factory, and the occupier or manager, as the case may be, shall be
 discharged from  any liability  under this  Act  in  respect  of  such
 offence:
 
      Provided that  in seeking  to prove as aforesaid, the occupier or
 manager of  the factory,  as the case may be, may be examined on oath,
 and his evidence and that of any witness whom he calls in his
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 88C
 
 support shall  be subject to cross-examination on behalf of the person
 he charges as the actual offender and by the prosecutor:
 
      Provided further  that, if  the  person  charged  as  the  actual
 offender by the occupier or manager cannot be brought before the Court
 at the  time appointed for hearing the charge, the Court shall adjourn
 the hearing  from time to time for a period not exceeding three months
 and if  by the end of the said period the person charged as the actual
 offender cannot  still be  brought before  the Court,  the Court shall
 proceed to  hear the charge against the occupier or manager and shall,
 if the offence be proved, convict the occupier or manager.
 
  
 102.
  
 Power of Court to make orders.
  
 
      102. Power  of Court  to make  orders. (1)  Where the occupier or
 manager of  a factory is convicted of an offence punishable under this
 Act the Court may, in addition to awarding any punishment, by order in
 writing require  him, with-in  a period  specified in the order (which
 the Court  may, if  it thinks  fit and  on application in such behalf,
 from time to time extend) to take such measures as may be so specified
 for remedying  the  matters  in  respect  of  which  the  offence  was
 committed.
 
      (2) Where an order is made under sub-section (1), the occupier or
 manager of  the factory, as the case may be, shall not be liable under
 this Act  in respect  of the  continuation of  the offence  during the
 period or  extended period,  if any,  allowed by the Court, but if, on
 the expiry  of such period or extended period, as the case may be, the
 order of  the Court  has not been fully complied with, the occupier or
 manager, as  the case  may be,  shall be  deemed to  have committed  a
 further offence, and may be sentenced therefor by the Court to undergo
 imprisonment for  a term  which may  extend to  six months or to pay a
 fine which  may extend  to one hundred rupees for every day after such
 expiry on  which the  order has  not been  complied with,  or both  to
 undergo such imprisonment and to pay such fine, as aforesaid.
 
  
 103.
  
 Presumption as to employment.
  
 
      103. Presumption  as to  employment. If  a person  is found  in a
 factory at  any time,  except during intervals for meals or rest, when
 work is  going on  or the  machinery is  in motion, he shall until the
 contrary is  proved, be  deemed for  the purposes  of this Act and the
 rules made  thereunder to  have been  at that  time  employed  in  the
 factory.
 
  
 104.
  
 Onus as to age.
  
 
      104. Onus  as to  age. (1)  When any  act or omission would, if a
 person were  under a  certain age, be an offence punishable under this
 Act, and  such person is in the opinion of the Court prima facie under
 such age, the burden shall be on the accused to prove that such person
 is not under such age.
 
 88D
 
      (2) A  declaration in writing by a certifying surgeon relating to
 a worker  that he  has personally  examined him and believes him to be
 under the  age stated  in such  declaration shall, for the purposes of
 this Act  and the  rules made thereunder, be admissible as evidence of
 the age of that worker.
 
  
 104A
  
 Onus of proving limits of what is practicable, etc.
  
 
      1*[104A. Onus  of proving  limits of what is practicable, etc. In
 any proceeding  for an  offence for the contravention of any provision
 of this Act of rules made thereunder consisting of a failure to comply
 with a duty or requirement to do something, it shall be for the person
 who is alleged to have failed to comply with such duty or requirement,
 to prove  that it  was not  reasonably practicable or, as the case may
 be, all  practicable measures  were  taken  to  satisfy  the  duty  or
 requirement.]
 
  
 105.
  
 Cognizance of offences.
  
 
      105. Cognizance  of offences.  (1) No Court shall take cognizance
 of any  offence under  this Act  except on  complaint by,  or with the
 previous sanction in writing of, an Inspector.
 
      (2) No  Court below  that of  a Presidency  Magistrate  or  of  a
 Magistrate of  the first  class shall try any offence punishable under
 this Act.
 
  
 106.
  
 Limitation of prosecutions.
  
 
      106. Limitation  of prosecutions.  No Court shall take cognizance
 of any offence punishable under this Act unless complaint thereof made
 within three months of the date on which the alleged commission of the
 offence came to the knowledge of an Inspector:
 
      Provided that  where the offence consists of disobeying a written
 order made  by an  Inspector, complaint thereof may be made within six
 months of  the date  on which  the offence  is alleged  to  have  been
 committed.
 
      2*[Explanation.--For the purposes of this section,--
 
           (a)  in the  case  of  continuing  offence,  the  period  of
                limitation shall  be computed  with reference  to every
                point of time during which the offence continues;
 
           (b)  where for the performance of any act time is granted or
                extended on  an application  made by  the  occupier  or
                manager of a factory, the period of limitation shall be
                computed from  the date on which the time so granted or
                extended expired.
 
  
 106A
  
 Jurisdiction of  a  court  for  entertaining  proceedings,  etc.,  foroffence.
  
 
      3*[106A. Jurisdiction  of a  court for  entertaining proceedings,
 etc., for  offence. For the purposes of conferring jurisdiction on any
 court in  relation to  an offence  under this  Act or  the rules  made
 thereunder in  connection with  the operation  of any plant, the place
 where the  plant is  for the  time being situate shall be deemed to be
 the place where such offence has been committed.]
 
  
 CHAP
  
 SUPPLEMENTAL
  
 
                               CHAPTER XI
 
                              SUPPLEMENTAL
 
  
 107.
  
 Appeals.
  
 
      107. Appeals.  (1) The  manager of  a factory on whom an order in
 writing by  an Inspector  has been served under the provisions or this
 Act or
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  39 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987).
 2.   Ins. by Act 94 of 1976, s. 43 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
 3.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 s. 40 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 89
 
 the occupier  of the factory may, within thirty days of the service of
 the order,  appeal against  it to  the prescribed  authority, and such
 authority may,  subject to  rules made  in this  behalf by  the  State
 Government, confirm, modify or reverse the order.
 
      (2) Subject  to rules made in this behalf by the State Government
 (which may  prescribe classes of appeals which shall not be heard with
 the aid  of assessors), the appellate authority may, or if so required
 in the  petition of  appeal shall,  hear the  appeal with  the aid  of
 assessors, one  of whom  shall be appointed by the appellate authority
 and the  other by such body representing the industry concerned as may
 be prescribed:
 
      Provided that if no assessor is appointed by such body before the
 time fixed   for  hearing the  appeal, or if the assessor so appointed
 fails to attend the hearing at such time, the appellate authority may,
 unless satisfied  that the  failure to  attend is  due  to  sufficient
 cause, proceed to hear the appeal without the aid of such assessor or,
 if it thinks fit, without the aid of any assessor.
 
      (3) Subject  to such  rules as  the State  Government may make in
 this behalf and subject to such conditions as to partial compliance or
 the adoption  of temporary  measures as the appellate authority may in
 any case  think fit  to impose,  the appellate  authority may,  if  it
 thinks fit, suspend the order appealed against pending the decision of
 the appeal.
 
  
 108.
  
 Display of notices.
  
 
      108. Display  of notices. (1) In addition to the notices required
 to be  displayed in  any factory  by or under this Act, there shall be
 displayed in  every factory a notice containing such abstracts of this
 Act and of the rules made thereunder as may be prescribed and also the
 name and address of the Inspector and the certifying surgeon.
 
      (2) All  notices required by or under this Act to be displayed in
 a factory  shall be  in English  and in  a language  understood by the
 majority of the workers in the factory, and shall be displayed at some
 conspicuous and  convenient place  at or near the main entrance to the
 factory, and shall be maintained in a clean and legible condition.
 
      (3) The  Chief Inspector  may, by  order in writing served on the
 manager of  any factory,  require that there shall be displayed in the
 factory any  other notice  or poster relating to the health, safety or
 welfare of the workers in the factory.
 
  
 109.
  
 Service of notices.
  
 
      109. Service  of notices.  The State  Government may  make  rules
 prescribing the  manner of  the service  of orders  under this  Act on
 owners, occupiers or managers of factories.
 
 90
 
  
 110.
  
 Returns.
  
 
      110. Returns.  The State  Government  may  make  rules  requiring
 owners, occupiers  or mangers  of factories  to submit  such  returns,
 occasional or  periodical, as  may in  its opinion be required for the
 purposes of this Act.
 
  
 111.
  
 Obligations of workers.
  
 
      111. Obligations of workers. (1) No worker in a factory--
 
           (a)  shall wilfully  interfere with or misuse any appliance,
                convenience or  other thing  provided in  a factory for
                the purposes  of securing the health, safety or welfare
                of the workers therein;
 
           (b)  shall wilfully and without reasonable cause do anything
                likely to endanger himself or others; and
 
           (c)  shall wilfully  neglect to make use of any appliance or
                other thing provided in the factory for the purposes of
                securing the health of safety of the workers therein.
 
      (2) If  any worker  employed in  a factory contravenes any of the
 provisions of this section or of any rule or order made thereunder, he
 shall be  punishable with  imprisonment for a term which may extend to
 three months,  or with fine which may extend to one hundred rupees, or
 with both.
 
  
 111A
  
 Right or workers, etc.
  
 
      1*[111A. Right or workers, etc. Every worker shall have the right
 to--
 
           (i)  obtain  from  the  occupier,  information  relating  to
      workers' health and safety at work,
 
           (ii) get  trained within  the factory wherever possible, or,
      to get himself sponsored by the occupier for getting trained at a
      training  centre   or  institute,  duly  approved  by  the  Chief
      Inspector, where  training is  imparted for  workers' health  and
      safety at work.
 
           (iii) represent  to the  Inspector directly  or through  his
      representative  in   the  matter   of  inadequate  provision  for
      protection of his health or safety in the factory.]
 
  
 112.
  
 General power to make rules.
  
 
      112. General  power to  make rules. The State Government may make
 rules providing  for any  matter which, under any of the provisions of
 this Act,  is to  be or  may be  prescribed or which may be considered
 expedient in order to give effect to the purposes of this Act.
 
  
 113.
  
 Powers of Centre to give directions.
  
 
      113. Powers  of Centre to give directions. The Central Government
 may give  directions to  a State  Government as  to the  carrying into
 execution of the provisions of this Act.
 
  
 114.
  
 No charge for facilities and conveniences.
  
 
      114. No  charge for  facilities and  conveniences. Subject to the
 provisions of  section 46  no fee or charge shall be realised from any
 worker in respect of any arrangements or facilities to be provided, or
 any equipments  or appliances to be supplied by the occupier under the
 provisions of this Act.
 
  
 115.
  
 Publication of rules.
  
 
      115. Publication  of rules. 2*[(1)] All rules made under this Act
 shall be  published in  the Official  Gazette, and shall be subject to
 the condition  of previous  publication ; and the date to be specified
 under clause (3) of section 23 of the General Clauses Act, 1897,(10 of
 1897.) shall  be not  less than  2*[forty five  days] from the date on
 which the draft of the proposed rules was published.
 
      2*[(2) Every  rule made  by the  State Government  under this Act
 shall be  laid, as  soon as  may be after it is made, before the State
 Legislature.]
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987, s. 41 (w.e.f. 1.2.1987)
 2.   Re-numbered , subs. &  Ins. by s. 42, ibid (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
 
 91
 
  
 116.
  
 Application of Act to Government factories.
  
 
      116. Application of Act of Government factories. Unless otherwise
 provided this Act shall apply to factories belonging to the Central or
 any State Government.
 
  
 117.
  
 Protection to persons acting under this Act.
  
 
      117. Protection  to persons  acting  under  this  Act.  No  suit,
 prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for
 anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done under this
 Act.
 
  
 118.
  
 Restriction on disclosure of information.
  
 
      118. Restriction  on disclosure  of information. (1) No Inspector
 shall, while  in  service  or  after  leaving  the  service,  disclose
 otherwise than  in connection with the execution, or for the purposes,
 of  this   Act  any  information  relating  to  any  manufacturing  or
 commercial business  or any  working process  which may  come  to  his
 knowledge in the course of his official duties.
 
      (2) Nothing  in sub-section  (1) shall apply to any disclosure of
 information made  with the previous consent in writing of the owner of
 such business  or process  or for the purposes of any legal proceeding
 (including arbitration)  pursuant to  this  Act  or  of  any  criminal
 proceeding which  may be  taken,  whether  pursuant  to  this  Act  or
 otherwise, or  for the  purposes of  any report of such proceedings as
 aforesaid.
 
      (3) If  any Inspector  contravenes the  provisions of sub-section
 (1) he  shall be  punishable with  imprisonment for  a term  which may
 extend to  six months,  or with  fine which may extend to one thousand
 rupees, or with both.
 
  
 118A
  
 Restriction on disclosure of information.
  
 
      1*[118A. Restriction  on disclosure  of  information.  (1)  Every
 Inspector shall  treat as  confidential the  source of  any  complaint
 brought to his notice on the breach of any provision of this Act.
 
      (2) No  inspector shall,  which making  an inspection  under this
 Act, disclose  to the occupier, manager or his representative that the
 inspection is made in pursuance of the receipt of complaint:
 
      Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any case
 in which  the person  who has  made the  complaint  has  consented  to
 disclose his name.]
 
  
 119.
  
 Act to  have effect  notwithstanding anything  contained in  Act 37 of1970.
  
 
      2*[119. Act  to have effect notwithstanding anything contained in
 Act 37  of  1970.  The  provisions  of  this  Act  shall  have  effect
 notwithstanding  anything  inconsistent  therewith  contained  in  the
 Contract Labour (Regulation and  Abolition) Act, 1970. 3*[or any other
 law for the time being in force]
 
  
 120.
  
 Repeal and savings.
  
 
      120. Repeal  and savings.  The enactments  set out  in the  Table
 appended to this section are hereby repealed:
 
      Provided that anything done under the said enactments which could
 have been  done under  this Act  if it had then been in force shall be
 deemed to have been done under this Act.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   Ins.  by Act 20 of 1987, s.  43 (w.e.f.  1-12-1987)
 2.   Ins, by  Act 94  of 1976, s. 44 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976). The original
      s. 119 was repealed by Act 35 of 1950, s. 2 and Sch. I.
 3.   Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 s. 44 (w.e.f. 1-12-1987).
 
 91A
 
      TABLE.--[Enactments repealed]. Rep. by the Repealing and Amending
 Act, 1950 (35 of 1950), s. 2 and Sch. 1.